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1968. Lead Mining in the Peak District by Trevor D. Ford and J. H. Rieuwerts
1994. States, Firms and Raw Materials: The World Economy and Ecology of Aluminium edited by Bradford Barham, Stephen G. Bunker and Denis O' Hearn

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Ford, Trevor D., and Rieuwerts, J. H. 'Lead Mining in the Peak District' published in 1970 as a revised edition in Great Britain, 127pp, no ISBN. Condition: good, but vintage and with the normal library markings as an ex-library volume including adhesive plastic cover on the exterior with bubbling effect from ageing. Price: £6.99, not including post and packing, which is Amazon UK's standard charge (currently £2.80 for UK orders and more for overseas purchases)
1970, Peak District Mines Historical Society, 127pp
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  • Lead Mining in the Peak District [top]
    Compiled by members of the Peak District Mines Historical Society and edited by Trevor D. Ford and J. H. Rieuwerts, who are additionally authors
    First published in 1968 in Great Britain by the Peak Park Planning Board in hardback with dustjacket
    Reprinted in 1970 -revised edition- in Great Britain by the Peak Park Planning Board in hardback, 127pp, no ISBN
    Cover illustration: "The Stows" from Agricola's "De Re Metallica", 1556; Front Endpaper: Method of working a vein in the 19th Century (from Stokes); Back Endpaper: Various ways of climbing a shaft (from Stokes)
    The book includes some amazing illustrations and maps - the whole of the area described is shown on the 1 inch to 1 mile Sheet 111: Buxton & Matlock and National Grid References are given throughout the text for easy location of places mentioned. PLEASE NOTE -Sheet 111 is the map the book refers to, but the modern [in 2011] OS map is 119: Buxton and Matlock, Chesterfield, Bakewell and Dove Dale (OS Landranger Map)

    Further Reading: Readers interested in the relations of the limestones, toadstones and mineral veins of the peak district in the 18th Century and early years of the 19th Century should consult works by John Whitehurst, White Watson, John Farey, Elias Hall and William Martin, all of who became internationally known through their inspired writings on the Derbyshire mines, strata and fossils
    Georgius Agricola's groundbreaking and iconic work "De Re Metallica" of 1556 contains drawings of early mining apparatus including pumping machinery. The information comes from German mining areas; this is significant because Derbyshire benefitted from the very same technologies when German miners and engineers came to the area in the 16th Century

About this book: This booklet was compiled by members of the Peak District Mines Historical Society in the hope that visitors to the Peak District National Park will not only continue to admire its wonderful scenery, but also begin to take an interest in the many relics of one of Britain's erstwhile foremost industries, which was the backbone of the district's wealth for over 1,500 years. The limestone uplands and valleys, and parts of the marginal shale and gritstone country are littered with derelict shafts, grass covered spoil heaps and ruined buildings, forming conspicuous and characteristic features of many parts of the area.

Industrial remains are not known for blending in with the surrounding environment, but the old Derbyshire lead miners usually used local materials for their buildings and shafts, which has meant that they blend exceptionally well with the surrounding countryside. The 'hillocks' or old spoil heaps of discarded stone and mineral from the workings are now largely grassed over and would be passed by without a glance if attention were not drawn to them in the first place.

In 1968 when this book was published, the remains of the lead mining industry were already fast disappearing, which is why the Peak District Mines Historical Society made strenuous efforts to conserve and preserve the more interesting and important sites. The excusions in this book are specially planned to illustrate the many facets of this ancient industry with all of them containing important sites where preservation is the desired outcome. Most of the walks are on public rights of way, but some are on private land and will need permission from the landowner to walk to the areas of interest. Sometimes the nearest farm is the place where permission can be obtained. The authors point out that old mine workings are dangerous places to walk near and all care and caution should be taken - for example some shafts were covered with piles of stones, which could collapse if walked on.

Contents:
Preface by J.H. Rieuwerts
Introduction:
Part One - The Lead Ores and Veins by T. D. Ford
Terminology
All four of the below types of mineral vein can be found and were found in the Carboniferous Limestone of the Peak District and walkers and sight-seeers can view veins cutting through the limestone in the cliffs, e.g. Lathkill Dale
Flats - are mineral deposits lying more or less parallel to the stratification of the surrounding limestone - in Derbyshire, this is usually pretty much vertical
Examples: Golconda Mine at Brassington; on Masson Hill; and on Bonsall Moor
Rakes - the major mineral veins running across country for a mile or more, consisting of minerals filling a fracture or fissure in the limestone, which is usually nearly vertical. Could be anything up to 20 fee in width
Scrins - are minor equivalents of rakes - usually mineral veins of not more than a foot in width and rarely stretching over the countryside for more than a mile or so. Workings of such veins usually do not penetrate the ground more than 200ft in depth
Pipes - a variation of flats in which length greatly exceeds breadth. Pipes are not uncommon spreading out along the enclosing limestone stratification alongside rakes
Examples: Mandale Mine was in a rake with pipe-like extensions in the walls. The vein is therefore recorded either as Mandale Rake or Mandale Pipe

Part Two - the History of Mining by J. H. Rieuwerts
Early History (e.g. Roman workings: LVT, LVTVD or even LVTVDARES - believed to refer to Lutudarum, which was probably a site at Matlock or Wirksworth)
Origin and Early Development of Mining Customs
Mining Methods: Ore and Ore Extraction; and Early Drainage Techniques; Development in Draining: Soughs or Levels in the 17th Century; Ventilation; Preparation of Ore Ready for Smelting
Lead Smelting Prior to 1700
The 'Heyday' of Lead Mining: The Years 1700 - 1750
The Impact of the Industrial Revolution on Lead Mining, Pumping Machinery and Capital Mines
Underground Transport and Haulage
The Years 1800-1850. The Era of the Larger Mining Companies
The Declining Years: 1850 to the Present Day

Itineraries Summary: :
1. The Castleton Area (T. D. Ford)
2. The Slag Mill Flues, Bradwell (P.W. Crabtree)
3. The Eyam-Stoney Middleton Area (T.D. Ford)
4. The Sheldon and Ashford Area (T.D. Ford)
5. The Ashford Black Marble Mines (T.D. Ford)
6. The Lathkill Dale Mines (J.H. Rieuwerts)
7. Hillocks and Knotlow Mines, Monyash (J.A. Robey)
8. The Alport-by-Youlgreave Mining Fied (A.E. Marsh)
9. The Matlock and Cromford Area (N. Gregory and T. D. Ford)
10. The Crich Area (Patricia E. Lunn)
11. Carsington Pastures, Brassington (R.N. Tune)
12. Stone Edge Smelt (C. J. Williams and L. Willies)

Glossary; Acknowledgements
Select Bibliography
Additional References for The Itineraries

Plates
Itineraries:
1. The Castleton Area by T. D. Ford
Two different walks are proposed to cover all the important mining features still to be seen (in 1968 that is).
Walk 1: Walking distance 4-5 miles, map: Classical Areas Of British Geology. Geological Sheet Sk 18 Castleton. Takes in Russet Well, Peakshole Sough, Peak Cavern, Cowlow, Longcliff Mine, Speedwell Mine, Cavedale, Hazard Mine, Hollandtwine Mine, Dirtlow Rake, Wham Engine Mine, Portway Mines, Oxlow Rake, Eldon Hole, Slitherstones, Watts Grove Mine, Pindale and Ashton's Mine
Walk 2: Walking distance about 2.5 miles, map Classical Areas Of British Geology. Geological Sheet Sk 18 Castleton. Takes in Odin Sough, Odin Mine (in the 1960s, Knowles Shaft was still open but flooded), Windy Knoll, Treak Cliff Cavern and The Blue John Caverns
2. The Slag Mill Flues, Bradwell by P.W. Crabtree
3. The Eyam-Stoney Middleton Area by T. D. Ford, maps SK26 Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) (Classical Areas of British Geology Maps) and SK27 MAP OF CHESTERFIELD AND STONEY MIDDLETON Sheet SK 27/37. Takes in Glebe Mine, Ladywash Mine, Watergrove Mine, Sallet Hole Mine, New Engine Mine, Shaw Engine Mine and Brookhead Mine
4. The Sheldon and Ashford Area: The Magpie and Nearby Mines by I. J. Brown. Walking distance about 2.5 - 4 miles, map: SK 16 The Limestone and Dolomite Resources of the Country Around Monyash, Derbyshire (Mineral Assessment Reports). Takes in The Magpie Mine, Mogshaw Mine (on Mogshaw Rake), True Blue Mine, Kirk Dale Mine and Fieldgrove Mine
5. The Ashford Black Marble Mines by T. D. Ford
6. The Lathkill Dale Mines by J. H. Rieuwerts - walking distance 3.5 or 6 miles depending on return route, map SK 16 The Limestone and Dolomite Resources of the Country Around Monyash, Derbyshire (Mineral Assessment Reports) and SK26 Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) (Classical Areas of British Geology Maps). Takes in Lathkill Dale Slough, Mandale Slough, Mandale Mine, Gank Hole Vein, Carters Mill, Smallpenny Vein Sough, Holmes Groove, Lathkill House Cave and Ricklow Quarry
7. Hillocks and Knotlow Mines, Monyash by J.A. Robey - walking distance 4.5 miles, map SK 16 The Limestone and Dolomite Resources of the Country Around Monyash, Derbyshire (Mineral Assessment Reports)
8. The Alport-by-Youlgreave Mining Field by A.E. Marsh, map SK26 Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) (Classical Areas of British Geology Maps) including sections on the mineral veins, mineral liberties and history of the field from 1647 when mineral articles for the Liberty of Harthill were written down at a Barmoot Court to 1932 when there was a serious gas explosion at Mawstone Mine whilst driving level in shale towards Gratton Dale killed 5 miners and 3 rescuers closing the mine permanently. Also has a section on the water pressure engines and Hillcarr Sough
9. The Matlock and Cromford Area by N. Gregory and T.D. Ford, walking distance 3 - 6 miles dependent on return route; maps SK 25 NE and SK26 Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) (Classical Areas of British Geology Maps). Takes in Ball Eye Mine, Cromford Sough, Cromford Canal Wharf, Rock House, Masson Mills, Wapping Mine, Cumberland Cavern, Jug Holes, Mill Close Mine, Old Mill Close Mine, Watts Shaft and Yatestoop Sough
10. The Crich Area by Patricia E. Lunn - Map - Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) - includes Jingler Mine, Wakebridge Mine, Glory Mine and Old End Mine; maps
11. Carsington Pastures, Brassington by R.N. Tune - walking distance 4 miles, Map - Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36). The walk takes in Nickalum mine, Great Rake Mine, Perseverance Rake, Carsington Pasture Cave, Oakcliffe Rake, Nursery End Mine, The King's Chair (a crag of dolomitic limestone), Innocent mine, Green Linnets Mine, Conway Mine, Golconda Mine, Bees Nest Mine and Job Mine. Snake Mine could be visited after the walk
12. Stone Edge Smelt by C.J. Williams and L. Willies -place to visit (not a walk) - Map - Matlock: Solid and Drift Geology Map (Parts of SK25-26, SK35-36) - a place of smelting hearths, cupolas and furnaces

Illustrations (all black and white; there are no colour illustrations or plates):
p3. A Map of the Mineral Veins of Derbyshire
p3. Diagram of vein types showing two parallel rakes on the surface with scrins branching out of each
p10. An illustration of a freeing dish and its inscription (a freeing dish contained ore paid to the Barmaster - a Crown official dealing with lead mining queries and customs. Two freeing dishes had to be paid to the Barmaster by the miners, representing the initial payment due to the owners of the mineral duties)
p11. A map of the Lead Mining Liberties of the Peak District
p13. Drawing of early mining by shallow shafts and short galleries as shown in Agricola's "De Re Metallica", 1556
p17. Drawing of "Buddling" lead ore as shown by Agricola in 1556
p18. 3 drawings: Jigging Machine (top and middle), and buddling (bottom). Drawings from Stokes
p25. Very atmospheric and powerful image of three lead miners, one descending by means of a rope from a winch which is being powered by another of the miners whilst the third looks on and talks to the descending miner. All three have torches on their helmets. Called 'Descending a shaft by means of a stow in a coe' from L. Simonin
p45. Sketch map of the lead veins near Castleton, 2 inches : 1 mile
p47. Plans of Hollandtwine, Hazard and Watts Grove Mines, near Castleton (by H. E. Chatburn)
p48. Sketch map of the Lead Veins of the Pindale Area, Castleton
p49. Plan of Ashton's (Pindale) Mine, Dirtlow Rake, Castleton (by H. E. Chatburn)
p50. Plan of Odin Mine and the Blue John deposits of Treak Cliff, Castleton
p52. the Odin Mine crushing circle and wheel
p54. A sketch of the lead smelting works, Bradwell, in 1859 - see itinerary 2, The Slag Mill Flue
p57. A sketch map of the lead veins of Magpie Mine and the Sheldon Area
p61. A scale diagram of the surface buildings at Magpie Mine (0.5 inches : 50 feet)
p62. A cut-away diagram of the Magpie Mine Engine in the 1860s (by V. Roche)
p68. Map of the Black Marble Mines and Mill at Ashford-in-the-Water
p69. Map of the veins and mines of Lathkill Dale
p70. Plan of surface remains at Mandale and Lathkill Dale Mines
p74. Plan and section of Hillocks and Knotlow Mines, Monyash
p76. Outline drawings of sections of old "coffin" levels at Hillocks mine
p79. Map of the principal veins and soughs of the Alport Mining Field including Alport Sough, Shining Sough and Hillcarr Sough and branches
p89. A map of the mines and veins of the Matlock area (1 inch : 0.5 miles)
p94. A sketch map (7/8 inch : 0.5 miles) of the Wensley, Mill Close and Darley Bridge Area showing many old shafts sunk through shale
p100. A map of the veins and mines of the Crich area
p107. Sketch map of the veins and mines of Carsington Pasture
p111. Plan of surface remains at Snake mine, Hopton Wood
p113. Plan of the Stone Edge Smelting Works
p114. Plan and view of the low arched Cupola at Stone Edge

List of Plates p30-45
1. The horse-winding gin on Snake Mine, Hopton Wood about 1813. The Shaft, 250 feet deep, is under the pulley, and the barrel alongside was used to raise ore. Source: Derbyshire Pennine Club
2. Typical specimens of Peak District Minerals. Source: Dr. T. Ford
3. A typical Peak District mineral vein - Blue John (bleujaune, bleu jaune) fluorspar and calcite between walls of limestone, Treak Cliff Cavern. Source: Dr. T. Ford
4a) "Nicking" Greaves Croft Mine, Moss Rake, Bradwell, 1906. Source: F. J. Brindley
4b) The last Peak District lead-miner - the late C. H. Millington, at Monyash. Source: H. M. Parker
5a) Watt's Engine House, Mill Close Mine. Source: F. Nixon
5b) The Engine House, head-frame and chimney of Mill Dam Mine, Great Hucklow, about 1900. The building in the left foreground became the village's theatre
6a) A small hand-picked level in Hillock's Mine. Source: J. Matthews
6b) Looking up a hand-picked shaft in Hillock's Mine. The ladder rungs provide a scale as they are 7 inches long. Source: J. Robey
6c) Detail of pick-marks in Knotlow Mine. Source: J. Robey
6d) A typical Peak District Sough; Shining Sough in the Alport Mines. Source: A. E. Marsh
7) The top of Mandale Forefield Shaft showing the Ginging. Source: H. M. Parker
8) An explorer descending Field Grove Engine Shaft, Sheldon, by wire-ladder. The section cut off by timbers was originally the ladder-way. Source: H. M. Parker
9a) Model of a crushing circle (model by H. E. Chatburn). Source: H. M. Parker
9b) Model of a horse-gin (model by H. E. Chatburn). Source: H. M. Parker
10) The arched tail of Red Rake Sough, 1851. Source: H. M. Parker
11) Looking out of the stone-arched Red Rake Sough Tail. Source: H. M. Parker
12a) The Odin crushing circle and wheel, near Castleton. Source: M. E. Smith
12b) A water-colour by John Webber of Odin Mine and Mam Tor, Castleton, in 1789. The waste-hillocks have now largely been used in road-making. Source: Whitworth Art Gallery
13a) The buildings of Magpie Mine, Sheldon. Source: H. M. Parker
13b) Three generations of winding house at Magpie Mine: the Cornish Engine House of c. 1864 in the background; the 1913 winding drum in the foreground, and the 1950 corrugated shed. The shaft is beneath the head-frame in the centre. Source: H. M. Parker
14) Mining fluorspar in Ladywash Mine today (1968). Source: Laporte Industries Ltd., Glebe Mine, Eyam
15) The Engine House of New Engine Mine, Eyam. Source: H. M. Parker

Derbyshire Minerals

The History of Lead Mining

Miners - social history

Life as a Miner

Life at the Pit

Barham, Bradford; Bunker, Stephen G.; O'Hearn, Denis. 'States, Firms, and Raw Materials: The World Economy and Ecology of Aluminium', published in 1994 in the United States by the University of Wisconsin Press in paperback, 341pp, ISBN 0299141144. Condition: Very good, clean & tidy condition, well looked-after. Price: £14.55, not including post and packing, which is Amazon UK's standard charge (currently £2.80 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1994, University of Wisconsin Press, pbk
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About this book/synopsis: Edited by Bradford Barham, Stephen G. Bunker and Denis O' Hearn, this book offers a closely integrated collection of case studies on aluminium production, blending detailed empirical data with current theories of the state, firm, industrial organization, and industrial development. The contributors consider historical, sociological, economic and ecological factors affecting the organizational dynamics of aluminium production, exposing the tensions and contradictions in world systems of extraction and refining. The volume as a whole is ideal as a text; it is arranged in three thematic sections with introductions that tie the case studies to larger issues about regional development.

The contributors number among them North American and European scholars and representatives of state-owned mineral firms in the third world and they trace the aluminium production process from the local communities where mines, smelters, and hydroelectric dams are located to the world market where refined aluminium is sold. They scrutinize interactions between the major aluminium consumers (the US, Japan and the EEC [in 1994-this now in 2009 includes China of course]) and several of the exporters and producers such as Jamaica, Brazil, Guinea and Canada. They demonstrate that strategic collusion between states and firms in industrial nations has left exporting nations with more expense and fewer benefits than might have been expected, given their wealth in bauxite and hydroelectric power. The editors conclude that firms and states in bauxite-rich nations can improve the returns and developmental outcomes of exporting raw materials only if they understand the complex dynamics of extraction, processing, and sale in strategically constructed global markets.

Chapters:
Figures; Tables; Preface; Note on Orthography, Tonnage, Currency, Shipping Terms. Contributors

Part 1. Ecology, Economy, and Raw Material Industry Structures:
1. Raw Material Industries in Resource-Rich Regions by Bradford Barham, Stephen G. Bunker and Denis O' Hearn. 2. The Evolution of the World Aluminium Industry by Stephen G. Bunker and Paul S. Ciccantell

Part 2. Firm Strategies and International Competition
3. Strategic Capacity Investments and the Alcoa-Alcan Monopoly, 1888-1945 by Bradford Barham
4. The Brazilian Aluminium Industry: Past Choices and Present Issues by Paulo de Sa

Part 3. Establishing Control of Peripheral Resources
5. Producing Imperialism Anew: the United States, the United Kingdom and Jamaican Bauxite by Denis O' Hearn
6. The Impact of the Restructuring of the Aluminium Industry in the 1980s on Productive Activities in Guinea by Bonnie K. Campbell
7. Quebec: Aluminium Valley or Aluminium Republic? by Paul-André Lapointe

Part 4. The Brazilian Resource Development and Japanese Access Strategies
8. Industrial Organization and Supply Policy in the Japanese Aluminium Industry by Isabel Marques

 



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