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1979. 'Kwanim Pa: The Making of the Uduk People. An Ethnographic Study of Survival in the Sudan-Ethiopian Borderlands by Wendy James

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1969. African Masks by Franco Monti
1975. Chieftainship and Legitimacy. An Anthropological Study of Executive Law in Lesotho by Ian Hamnett



Monti, Franco. 'African Masks', published in 1969 in Great Britain by Paul Hamlyn, in hardback with dustajacket, 158pp, No ISBN. Condition: very good with very good dustjacket. Price: £8.99, not including post and packing, which is Amazon UK's standard charge (currently £2.80 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1969, Paul Hamlyn, hbk
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  • African Masks [top]
    Written by Franco Monti; translated by Andrew Hale
    First published in 1969 in Great Britain by Paul Hamlyn in hardback with dustjacket, 158pp, no ISBN
    Category: Anthropology

About this book: To Western eyes, African masks have a sinister secret life of their own. The astonishing vigour of the carving and the often highly coloured decoration add to the feeling that these masks are more than just tribal regalia. In fact, a mask does not represent an emotion: it IS that emotion. As the author says, 'it is not the portrait of a man who fears, who fights, or who dies, but it is Fear, War, Death'. This fascinating book reveals, perhaps for the first time to the ordinary reader, the background of the Negro artist and his place and function in the tribe. It shows how the mask, part of a dance costume, is linked via the public ceremonial life of the tribe to the most secret religious customs. The masks are extremely varied in style, ranging from the child-like primitiveness of some from the Upper Volta to the serene sophistication of a Benin ivory. This confusing variety is carefully organised both in Franco Monti's stex and in the splendid illustrations, with their full accompanying notes, so that the reader can follow without difficulty the background to an art which has had so much influencen on Western painting and sculpture

Contents:
Introduction
p55. The Sudanese Region
p99. The Guinea Coast Region
p132. The Congolese Region
p144. Conclusion

Illustrations:
1. Photo, colour, hunter's mask, wood and colour. Height 19.5 inches. Dogon; Ireli, Bandiagara region, Mali. From a private collection in Milan
2. Photo, colour, white monkey mask, wood and colour, height 15.75 inches, Dogon; Ireli, Bandiagara region, Mali. From the Musée de l'Homme, Paris
3. Photo, colour, initiation mask: wood, berries and cowry shells. Height 19.5 inches, Bambara; Bamako region, Mali. From a private collection in Milan. It was used in the n'domo society, which brings together the uncircumcised young men. The number of horns differs from mask to mask and the cowry shells that cover the whole surface of the mask represent human skeletons
4. Photo, colour, of a fetish mask made from wood, berries, mirrors, and cowry shells. Height 28 inches; Bambara, Bamako region, Mali. From Musée de l'Homme, Paris
5. Photo, colour, of a Hyena mask made from wood, berries and cowry shells. Height 12 inches; Bambara, Bamako region, Mali. From a private collection in Milan
6. Photo, colour, of a mask covered with copper. The mask is made from wood, copper and cotton. Height 15.5 inches; Marka; San Region, Mali. From a private collection in Milan
7. Photo, colour, of a bird mask in wood, colours and fibres. Height 6 ft. Bobo; Bobo Dioulasso Region, Upper Volta. From the Musée de l'Homme, Paris. The mask probably represents an owl with peculiarly prominent beak and enormously dilated eyes. Used in hunting rites
8. Photo, colour, of a helmet-mask in wood and colour, height 27.5 inches. Originated in Bobo-Fing; Bobo Dioulasso region, Upper Volta. From the British Museum, London. Rare in that it was carved in the round
9. Photo, colour, of an anthropomorphic mask in wood. Height 43.5. Originated in Bobo-Fing; Bobo Dioulasso region, Upper Volta. Source: Private collection, Como
10. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood and colours with engraving. Height 16.5 inches. Origin: Mossi; Yatenga region, Upper Volta. Source: Private collection, Florence
11. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood and colours. Height 43.75 inches, originating from Mossi in the Yatenga region, Upper Volta. Masks of this type are used by the Wango society in the course of special ceremonies
12. Photo, colour, of a helmet-mask of the Korubla society in wood with a trace of colours. Height 33.5 inches. Originated in Senufo; Korhogo region in the Ivory Coast. Source: Private Collection: Milan. This mask is called a 'fire-spitter' and is a highly imaginative fusion of human and mixed animal element
13. Photo, colour, of a regalia dance mask in the shape of an antelope, in wood, with colours, berries and resin. Origin: Kurumba in the Aribinda region, Upper Volta. Source: Private collection, Milan
14. Photo, colour showing the mask of the Io society in wood. Height 15.5 inches. Origin: Senufo, Korhogo region, Ivory Coast. Source: Private collection, Rome
15. Photo, colour, of a wooden mask of the Io society. Height 11 inches. Origin: Senufo; Korhogo region, Ivory Coast. Source: Private Collection, Rome
16. Photo, colour, of a wood and fibre Nimba Mask. Height 87 inches. Origin: Baga; area round the Nunez and Company rivers, Guinea. Source: Musée de l'homme, Paris
17. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood with engraving on it. Height 34 inches. Origin: Landuman people, Guinea. Source: Private collection, Milan
18. Photo, colour, of a dance helmet in wood. Height 16.5 inches. Origin: Mende: Sierre Leone. Source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris. These helmet-masks are worn exclusively by the women belonging to the female bundu society in the course of initiation ceremonies
19. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood. Probably influenced by the powerful poro male society. Height 9.5 inches. Origin: Dan; Man region, Ivory Coast. Source: Private collection, Milan
20. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood, fibre and metal. Classic example of the northern Dan style. Height 9.75 inches. Origin: Dan; Man region, Ivory Coast. Source: Private collection, Florence
21. Photo, colour, of a dance mask in wood and colours. Height 11 inches. Origin: Ngere-Wobe; Duekoue region, Ivory Coast. The Ngere-Wobe masks are extraordinarily vivid and expressionistic. Source: Private collection, Milan
22. Photo, colour, of a mask of the Zamle society in wood and colours. It represents an antelope's head and is used by the initiated as a war mask. Height 16 inches. Origin: Guro; Daloa region, Ivory Coast. Source: Musée de l'homme, Paris
23. Colour photo of an ancestor mask made of wood with traces of colours on it. Height 11.75 inches, origin: Guro: Zouenoula region in Ivory Coast. Source: private collection, Milan
24. Colour photo of a Gu mask in wood and brass, height 12 inches. Origin: Ara Region, ivory Coast; source: private collection, Milan
25. Colour photo of a Guli mask in wood and colours. Height 17.75 inches; origin Baule; Bouake region, Ivory Coast; source: private collection, Florence. In the rich pantheon of the Balue, Kakagye or guli symbolises in a buffalo mask a divinity which women are forbidden to see
26. Colour photo of a pendant amulet in the form of a mask made of gold. Height 3.75 inches. Origin Baule; Ivory Coast; source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris
27. Colour photo of a dance mask made out of wood with traces of colour. Height 14.25 inches. Origin: Yaoure; Ivory Coast. Source: Private collection, Rome. The art of the Yaoure reveals two principal stylistic influences from the Baule and the Guro
28. Colour plate of an ornamental fetish mask in gold, height 2.75 inches. Origin: Agni; Ivory Coast. Source: Tristan Tzara Collection, Paris. These precious jewels are worn by the chiefs and dignitaries for certain rituals. When, as in this case, the mask sybolizes the ram, it is linked to the primeval concept of fertility
29. Colour photo of an ornamental fetish mask in gold. Height 2.5 inches; origin Ebrie; Grand Bassam region; Ivory Coast. Source: Rietberg Museum, Zurich. Masks of this type, which are made by casting gold alloy by the 'lost wax' (cire perdue) method are attached to the weapons of the chief to recall the number of enemy killed
30. Colour photo of a gold commemorative mask, height 7 inches. Origin: Ashanti; Southern region, Ghana. Source: Wallace Collection, London
31. Colour photo of a dance mask made from engraved wood. Height 10 inches; origin Bete; South Central Region, Ivory Coast. Source: Private collection, Milan
32. Colour photo of a commemorative mask in brass. Height 7.5 inches. Origin: Bron; Ghana. Source: Museum of Primitive Art, New York
33. Colour photo of a Sakrobundi mask in wood with coloured decoration. Height 85 inches. Origin: Grumshi (Gyaman); northern region, Ghana. Source: Private collection, Milan
34. Colour photo of a pectoral mask in ivory, iron, copper and stone. Height 9.5 inches. Origin: Bini; Benin; Nigeria. Source: Museum of Primitive Art, New York
35. Colour photo of an ornamental mask in bronze. Height 7 inches. Origin: Bini; Benin; Nigeria, 19th Century. Source: Rietberg Museum, Zurich
36. Colour photo of a Gelede society mask in wood and colour. Height 15.75 inches from Yoruba; Lagos region, Nigeria. Source: Private Collection, Rome. This mask, notable for its harmony and high quality, was used by a male society for its fecundity and burial ceremonies. The top part represents a coiled snake which looks like a hairstyle
37. Colour photo of a wooden mask, with colours and engraving on it, for the epa festivity. Height 29 inches. Origin: Yoruba; Lagos region, Nigeria. Source: Private collection, Milan
38. Colour photo of a wooden mask of the water spirit. Height 14.25 inces. Origin: Ijo; Nigeria. Source: British Museum, London
39. Colour photo of a wooden Ekpo society mask. Height 8.25 inches. Origin: Ibibio; eastern region, Nigeria. Source: British Museum, London
40. Colour photo of a carved and painted wooden mask. Height 6.75 inches. Origin: Ibibio; eastern region, Nigeria. Source: British Museum, London
41. Colour photo of an Ikem society dance mask in wood, skins, horns and fibres. Height 31.5 inches. Origin: Ekoi; Nigeria. Source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris
42. Colour photo of a doubleheaded dance mask in wood, animal skins and hair. Height 15.5 inches. Origin: Ekoi; Cross river area, Nigeria. Source: British Museum, London
43. Colour photo of an antelope mask in wood and colour. Height 28.75 inches. Origin: Tikar, Bamenda region, Cameroun. Source: Private collection, Milan
44. Colour photo of a dance helmet in wood with traces of colour on it. Height 12.5 inches. Origin: Bamileke; Bafoussam region, Cameroun. Source: Private collection, Milan
45. Colour photo of a wooden dance mask with engravings. Height 26.5 inches. Origin: Bacham, Bamenda region, Cameroun. Source: Rietberg Museum, Zurich
46. Colour photo of a mask carved in wood. Height 10.75 inches. Origin: Bamun; Cameroun. Source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris
47. Colour photo of a wooden mask covered in copper. Materials used - wood, copper and cowry shells. Height 17.25 inches. Origin: Bamum; Foumban region, Cameroun. Source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris
48. Colour photo of a Mukuy society mask in wood and colour. Height: 11.5 inches. Origin: Balumbo; Ogoue region, Gabon. Source: Museum of Primitive Art, New York
49. Colour photo of a wooden dance mask with traces of colour on it. Height: 11.5 inches. Origin: region unknown, Gabon. Source: Museum of Primitive Art, New York
50. Colour photo of a wooden dance mask with colour on it. Height 19 inches. Origin: Fang; Gabon. Source: Private collection, Milan
51. Colour photo of a Ngi secret society mask in wood and colour. Height: 28.5 inches. Origin: Fang; Gabon. Source: Museum fur Volkerkunde, Berlin. The mask of this society, dedicated to the cult of fire, appears almost unreal in its beauty
52. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 14.5 inches. Origin: Bakwele; Sangha river region, Congo. Source: Private collection, Milan
53. Colour photo of a hat mask in wood, skins and fibres. Height 15.5 inches. Origin: Kayaka or Keaka; Cross river region, Cameroun. Source: Private collection, Milan
54. Colour photo of a dance helmet in wood and colour. Height 19 inches. Origin: Basuku; area between the rivers Kwango and Kwilu, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
55. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 11.25 inches. Origin: Bapende; Kwilu river region, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale; Tervuren
56. Colour photo of a carved wooden mask. Height 9 inches. Origin: Bapende; Congo. Source: Musée de l'Homme, Paris
57. Colour photo of a painted and engraved wooden mask. Height 17.25 inches. Origin: Basonge; Congo. Source: Museum of Primitive Art, New York
58. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 11.5 inches. Origin: Babinji; Kasai region; Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale
59. Colour photo of an initiation mask in wood, copper and cowry shells and beads. Height 32.75 inches. Origin: Bakuba; Kasai region, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren. The mask is called mboon or bombo and symbolises the relationship between the man of lowly status and the great dignitaries, especially the king. The formal and decorative details are characteristic of the Bakuba or Bushongo tribes. Many consider this mask to be one of their finest creations
60. Colour photo of a helmet-mask in wood. Height 15.5 inches. Origin: Baluba; Katanga; Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
61. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 14.25 inches. Origin: Basonge; Lomami river region, Congo. Source: Musée de 'Homme, Paris
62. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 9 inches. Origin: Bena Lulua; Kasai region, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
63. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood. Height 9.5 inches. Origin: Bajokwe; Kasai region, Congo. Source: Musée de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
64. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and vegetable fibres. Height 8 inches. Origin: Bajokwe; Kasai region, Congo. Source: Musée de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
65. Colour photo of a mask figuring a woman's face employing wood and whitening. Height 9.75 inches. Origin: Woyo; Mayumbe region, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
66. Colour photo of a Bwani society mask made out of Ivory. Height 6 inches. Origin: Warega, Maniema Region, Congo. Source: Private collection, Milan
67. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood and colour. Height 15.75 inches. Origin: Wabembe; Lake Tanganyika region, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
68. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood. Height 7.5 inches. Origin: Makonde; frontier region between Tanzania and Mozambique. Source: Rijksmuseum voor Volkerkunde, Leyden
69. Colour photo of a dance mask in wood with colour fibre. Height 35.75 inches. Origin: Bayaka; area between the Kwango and Kwilu rivers, Congo. Source: Musée Royal de l'Afrique Centrale, Tervuren
p152-153 - Map of Central and West Africa

 

Other Books on African Masks

Native Dance in Africa

Initiation in Africa

Africa Ceremonies

James, Wendy. 'Kwanim Pa: The Making of the Uduk People', published in 1979 in Great Britain by Clarendon Press, in hardback with dustjacket, 304pp, ISBN 0198231946. Condition: Very good clean & tidy copy. Dustjacket is price-clipped. Price: £69.95, not including p&p, which is Amazon's standard charge (currently £2.75 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1979, Clarendon Press, hbk
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About this book/synopsis: This is the first full length account of the Uduk people of the Sudan, who live uneasily between the northern and southern regions of the country, in the borderland close to the Ethiopian frontier. Although the book presents a good deal of new ethnographic material, it is not intended to be a comprehensive report on Uduk society and culture. Neither does it fully represent the five years of notebooks the author collected in the field in the Sudan (the Southern Blue Nile Province of the Sudan). The author intends to publish material on Uduk religion, ritual and healing separately. This book therefore mainly deals with subsistence, kinship, settlement patterns, population history and migrations, although the author does refer to selected aspects of myth, symbol and cult frequently -particularly the Gurunya ritual, an elaborte ritual dedicated to the saving of 'foundling' children.

The author states that throughout her research she noticed how important the historical past was to the Uduk people and this book is designed to explore how that relates to the present. The Uduk seem to exhibit externally visible links to past destructions of their society and have a digested (that is it has formed part of their makeup -their being) memory of the experience of those repeated destructions. They therefore represent themselves as a 'foundling people' putting together a new world. The author maintains that this self-image that the Uduk project is key to understanding their present economic, political and kinship institutions and behaviour.

Lay readers will probably be interested to read that the Uduk have rebuilt their society along matrilineal lines as a response to the pressures of the historical past.

Chapters:
Note on Texts

Prologue:
1. An Ethnographic Remnant
2. Events, Memories and Myths
3. Subsistence
4. Women and Birth-Groups
5. Affinity, Paternity and Other Bonds
6. A Hold on Territory
7. The Gurunya Bird and the Survival of the Weakest
8. A Historical View of the Uduk

Appendices
1. Notes on the Uduk Language
2. Population
3. Genealogy and residence in one hamlet
4. Southern Uduk 'revenge' marriages in Paba Hamlet
5. Northern Uduk marriage
6. Uduk relationship terminology

Bibliography, Index, List of Plates
Figures:

1. The Koman-speaking peoples
2. The southern Funj region
3. The Chali Omodiya
4. Northern Uduk settlements
5. Hamlets of Waka'cesh and neighbourhood, 1966-9
6. The agricultural calendar (main crops)
7. Dominant birth-groups of hamlets

 

Ethnographic Studies of Africa

 



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