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Titles to Look Out For:
[in alphabetical order, dated to earliest edition. Each listing includes later editions and printings]
1907. Church Needlework: A Practical Manual by Hinda M. Hands
1995. Thomas the Tank Engine Cross Stitch. 20 designs based on the Railway series by the Rev. W. Awdry by Helena Turvey
1998. The Watts Book of Embroidery. English Church Embroidery 1833-1953



Hands, Hinda M. 'Church Needlework: A Manual of Practical Instruction', published in 1907 by G. J. Palmer & Sons, in hardback, 103pp, illustrated. Condition: old, vintage, wholly intact & readable, but with lots of previous owner's names written inside the two covers and wear to the edges on the cover and a loose top section of the frontispiece. Price: £29.00, not including post and packing, which is Amazon UK's standard charge, currently £2.80 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers
1907, G. J. Palmer & Sons, hbk
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  • Church Needlework: A Manual of Practical Instruction [top]
    Written by Hinda M. Hands; based on articles written for 'The Treasury', which in the early 20th Century was edited by Anthony Deane
    First published in 1907 in Great Britain by G. J. Palmer & Sons, 7 Portugal Street, WC, in hardback, 103pp

About this book: This book was founded on a series of articles that Hinda Hands wrote on Church Embroidery for the 'Treasury'. It is intended for the use of those who are desirous of learning by practical experiment how to make the best use of such time and skill as they have at their command; and who, while they are unable to go through the long courses of instruction which are generally indispensable to the attainment of perfection, are yet anxious to devote their 'labour of love' to the service of the church. The book does not go into the history of embroidery in general, nor does it look at a particular branch of embroidery history, but it does collect together examples of embroidery to absorb the spirit of the work and to see how and why it was done. Hinda Hands has therefore selected examples from Churches, Public Museums and Libraries to show to the reader how embroidery should employ 1) a more harmonious gradation of colour than woven decoration; 2) The absence of mechanical repetition of pattern that woven decoration would exhibit; and 3) Freedom of line in the drawing (again, wovens would not have this). Hinda Hands advises the reader to choose a good colour scheme and decide on this at the same time as working out which materials will be used so that both scheme and materials are in accordance with each other. The would-be embroiderer should have a clear idea of the capabilities and the limitations both of the methods and materials by which the design is to be completed as a work of art and also a fair knowledge of ecclesiastical art from early times to the present day.

The principal requirements of any embroidery design are threefold: Beauty, Fitness, and Practicability; with beauty coming first as it is the raison d’etre of embroidery. Fitness comes next – does the embroidery design fit its place (surroundings) and role? Practicability is essential because it’s no good having a design if it’s impractical to execute by needle and thread. In embroidery, the finished article should always be more beautiful than the coloured drawing. Finally, the embroiderer must consider where and how an embroidery is to be positioned, i.e. angle from which it will be seen, the surroundings it is to be placed in - the style of architecture, background, lighting, size of the church, sunlit areas. A large church with a dark chancel will need a bolder, brighter colour than for a small church, or a well-lit one.

Contents:
Preface
1. Introductory
2. On Materials, etc.
3. On Mounting Frames and Tracing Designs
4. On Gold-Work
5. On Silk-Work
6. On Outline and Appliqué
7. On Figure-Work
8. On Liturgical Colours, Frontals, Etc.
9. On the Cope and Mitre
10. On Eucharistic Vestments, Chalice-Veil and Burse
11. On Banners
12. On The Principal Stitches Used in Linen-Work
13. On Alter Linen
14. On the Albe, Surplice, Etc
Conclusion, Appendices, Index

Photographs or drawings of actual embroideries and embroidery work or designs contained in this book:
(some chapters contain only sampler drawings and these have been omitted in the list below)
Frontispiece: Photograph of the altar and altar cloth embroidery at St. Margarets, King's Lynn

Chapter VI. On Outline and Appliqué
p23. Fig. I. - Appliqué. Italian, Seventeenth Century (Victoria & Albert Museum; No. 243-1895)
p24. Fig. IV. Appliqué enriched with Scroll-work. Apparel of Dalmatic, Spanish, Sixteenth Century (Victoria & Albert Museum; No. 888-1897)
p28. Fig. I. Christian Coptic Embroidery, A.D. 500 or 600. Part of a medallion of a tunic. From ancient tombs in Upper Egypt (Victoria & Albert Museum; No. 124 - 1891)
Chapter VII. On Figure Work
p30. Outline drawing of a fragment of de Cantelupe Vestment in Worcester Cathedral, A.D 1236-66
p31. Fig. II. Early Thirteenth Century figure-work (illustration). From the Syon Cope (Victoria & Albert Museum; No. 83-1864)
p32. Fig. III. Illustration of figure-work from an altar frontal in the Church of St. Thomas a Becket in Salisbury
p34. a) English Thirteenth Century figure-work; b) Westphalian Early Fifteenth Century (V&A Museum; No. 459-1905); c) Modern, Stitches Vertical
p35. Fig IV. Illustration of St. Andrew - Florentine work, fifteenth or early sixteenth century (V&A Museum; No. 5787-1859)
p38. Illustration of Italian early sixteenth century figure-work, suggested as the centre for Frontal, Fig. I on page 40 (V&A Museum; No. 8388-1863)
Chapter VIII. On Liturgical Colours, Frontals, Etc.
p40. Photo of an Early English frontal
p48. A fifteenth-century Bishop (Botticelli)
Chapter IX. On the Cope and Mitre
p50. Sketch showing spacing of Canopy-work; typical English thirteenth-century Cope of St. Sylvester. Each of the larger spaces is filled with groups of figures illustrating the life of Christ, smaller ones with Angels, the medallions with birds
p51. Mitre of St. Thomas of Canterbury
Chapter X. On Eucharistic Vestments, Chalice-Veil and Burse
p54. Fig. I. Illustration - Ruben's portrait of St. Ignatius of Loyola (in Warwick Castle), showing elaborately worked Chasuble
p55. Fig. II. Ancient forms of ends of Stole and Maniple (six different examples are shown)
p55. Early Twelfth Century drawing of the vestments worn at that time (from MS, British Museum, Y6)
p56. Fig. III. A Bishop's Tomb in Worcester Cathedral (showing old form of English chasuble)
p57. Fig. IV. Diagram showing dimension of chasuble
p58. Fig. V. Drawing of Chasuble of St. Thomas of Canterbury (At Sens)
p59. Fig VI. Drawing of an ornament for chasuble called the flower
p60. Fig VIII. St. Stephen (after V. Carpaccio). Fig VII. St. Lawrence (after Fra Angelico)
p61. Fig IX. Diagram showing dimensions of Dalmatic
p62. Illustration of Corporal-case or Burse, Italian, sixteenth century. From a drawing, size about 10 in. square (V&A Museum, No. 1511-1888)
p63. Chalice-veil; Italian, seventeenth century. Excerpt from a photograph; size about 24 in. square (V&A Museum, No. 237-1895)
Chapter XI. On Banners, etc.
p66. Pall, belonging to the Saddler's Company
p67. Central ornament at Sides and Ends of Pall, belonging to Saddler's Company
p68. Bible-bound for Queen Elizabeth in ruby velvet, embroidered in coloured silks, gold and silver thread, and seed pearls (In the Bodleian Library)
p70. Ancient Pulpit-hanging in Stapleton Church, Shrewsbury
p71. Ornament for herse-cloth, belonging to the Fishmonger's Company
Chapter XII. On the Principal Stitches Used in Linen Work
p77. Top. Photo of cross-stitch on a Spanish embroidery, sixteenth century (V&A Museum; No. 227-1880)
p77. Bottom. Photo of cross-stitch forming the background with the linen itself being the pattern. Spanish, early sixteenth century - design is the same on front and back (V&A Museum; No. 224-1880)
p78. Portion of an altar-cloth (embroidered Cambric), Italian
Chapter XIII On Altar Linen
Fig. I. Illustration of a portion of linen altar-cloth band, embroidered in various coloured silks in close herring-bone or plait-stitch, German, fifteenth century (V&A Museum; No.7025-1860)
Chapter XIV On the Albe, Surplice, Etc
p85. Fig. I. Illustration of a complete figure wearing an albe, girdle, amice and stole
p86. Fig. II. Diagram of an ancient albe in the V&A
p87. top. Fig. III. Diagram of a modern albe
p87. bottom. Fig IV - three illustrations of the needlework on the shoulder of an albe, the front and back seams and detail of insertion
p88. Fig. V. Amice of St. Thomas of Canterbury
p89. Top left. Fig VI. Illustration of an English choir surplice (A.D. 1301)
p89. Bottom right. Fig. VII. Illustration of modern surplice
p90. Illustration Fig. VIII. Diagram of how to cut a surplice like the one illustrated in Fig. VII

 

Religious Needlework

Church Embroidery

Turvey, Helena. "Thomas The Tank Engine Cross Stitch. 20 Designs based on the Railway Series by the Rev. W. Awdry", published in 1995 by Hamlyn Books in Great Britain in hardback, 112pp, ISBN 0600588564. Condition: ex-library with all the normal library markings and a plastic cover protecting the exterior. Price: £4.75, not including p&p, which is Amazon's standard charge (currently £2.80 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1995, Hamlyn, hbk

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About this book:
This book contains a unique collection of 20 exciting new designs in cross stitch published to commemorate the 50th anniversary of Thomas the Tank Engine by the Reverend W. Awdry. Here, favourite characters and scenes from the much-loved railway series are reproduced in an array of embroidered items, including practical clothes for children, all sorts of gifts and a variety of soft furnishings. With clear instructions throughout and a detailed section covering all the necessary materials, techniques and pattern templates, Thomas The Tank Engine Cross Stitch is full of creative ideas, whatever your level of sewing ability. Some projects require no more needlework than following the cross stitch chart. While more experienced stitchers can turn a variety of designs into all sorts of attractive clothes and accessories. Each design is beautifully photographed and accompanied by extracts and illustrations from the original engine story which inspired it. In the Clothing chapter, there are ideas for adding style to ready-made items, including how to stitch James onto a T-shirt, liven up pyjamas with railway motifs and embroider Terence and Bertie on the pockets of dungarees. The Gifts chapter explains how to make birthday and Christmas cards, along with a delightful Thomas pencil case, a drawstring purse, a cake band, a key ring, and a bookmark embroidered with that immortal character: the fat controller. And the Soft Furnishings chapter describes how to dress up curtains with a border and tie-back, sew a cushion; a toy bag and decorate a lampshade

Contents:
Foreword
Pictures:
Stepney
Wake Up James
Clothing:
James T-Shirt
In the Tunnel baseball cap
Puffing James Pyjamas
Stop and Go Slippers
Thomas and Clarabel Scarf
Terence and Bertie Dungarees
Henry Baby's Bib

Gifts:
Thomas pencil case
Harold Drawstring Purse
Fat Controller Bookmark
Snowdrift Christmas Card
Happy Birthday Card
Whistle Key Ring
Gordon Cake Brand

Soft Furnishings:
Cows! Curtains
Henry and the Elephant Cushion
Green Flag Lampshade
Henry Toy Bag

Materials and Techniques:
Equipment
How to Cross Stitch
The Stitches
Patterns
Suppliers

Index
Acknowledgements

 

Thomas the Tank Engine Embroidery - other options
Schoeser, Mary. 'English Church Embroidery 1833-1953', published in 1998, 2nd edition by Watts & Co in Great Britain, in paperback, full colour, 180pp, ISBN 0953326500. Condition: Very good, clean and tidy copy, well looked-after. Price: £30.00, not including Amazon's postage and packing charge (currently £2.80 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1998, pbk, Watts & Co.
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Back Cover:
Schoeser, Mary. 'The Watts Book of Embroidery: English Church Embroidery 1833-1953', back cover

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About this book/synopsis: This is the first book devoted to the fascinating story of Victorian and Edwardian church needlework. Today, remarkably little known, these embroideries document important aspects of 19th Century design by Pugin, Bodley, Morris, Kempe and others. Their making also contributed towards a new style in the 1870s - Art Needlework - as well as providing a training ground for women who later stitched for the suffrage movement. The 200 illustrations, most especially commissioned for this book, show exquisite treasures from churches and convents throughout Britain. The author, Mary Schoeser, is a well-known authority on 19th and 20th Century textiles. Together with a team of writers and researchers, she has drawn together a compelling account that brings to life a hitherto overlooked aspect of Victorian and Edwardian decorative arts

Front cover: shows a burse designed by the architect Edmund Sedding, c.1865
Back cover: details of embroideries designed by the Reverend Ernest Geldart, 1889
Left Back Cover: Embroidery designed and made in All Hallows' convent, 1895; and top left, laid work by Beatrice Spencer, c.1916

Contents:
Preface by Elisabeth Hoare
Foreword by Linda Parry

1. Fair and Beautiful to Behold
2. My Life is an Embroidery by Cynthia Weaver

3. The Designers: A.W. Pugin, G.E. Street, W.C. Brangwyn, Edmund Sedding, J.D. Sedding, Mary Barber, William Butterfield, G.F. Bodley, Ernest Geldart, J. N. Compter by Beryl Patten Moss, and E.A. Roulin

4. The Firms: Hardman & Co., Jones & Willis, Cox & Son, Buckley & Co, Morris & Co, Kempe Studios, Watts & Co, Louis Grossé

5. The Convents
6. Guilds and Secular Schools: Agnes Blencowe and the Ladies' Ecclesiastical Embroidery Society; Elizabeth Wardle and the Leek Embroidery Society by Cynthia Weaver, Royal School of Needlework by the Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Association by Margaret Bolger
7. Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Museum
Appendix, Endnotes, Acknowledgements, Index

Embroidery pieces/art plates included in this book:
Frontispiece: All Saints' Margaret Street. High altar with a frontal made by Watts in 1912
Preface, p4-5: one of the three banners designed by David Gazeley and made by Watts & Co for York Minster in 1998. p5 shows a detail of the reverse side, whilst p4 shows a goldwork and velvet cope hood worked by Watts in the 1930s
p6. Shows a design for a whitework border together with the patterns for an embroidered orphrey (shown on the title page) and the crosses for stoles (shown on p7 and p42). They were illustrated in Anastasia Dolby's book Church Vestments: Their Origin Use and Ornament (1868). The border was intended for an alb, which is a white linen tunic worn under the dalmatic (vestment worn over the alb by the deacon, e.g. at the celebration of the mass), chasuble (sleeveless outer vestment worn by a celebrant at mass) or cope
p.8. Four 'Patterns of Diapering' from Pugin's Glossary of Ecclesiastical Ornament and Costume, Compiled from Ancient Authorities and Examples (originally published 1844, this publication September 2010)
p.9. A stole from St. Augustine's Kilburn, which is part of a black High Mass set from 1889 designed by Geldart, the Rector of Little Braxted in Essex, and embroidered in Bruges. Black was used on All Souls' Day and at Requiem and funeral masses at the more ritualistically advanced churches
p10. Diagram showing the dimensions of a dalmatic, which was illustrated in Church Needlework (1909) by Hinda M. Hands. The dalmatic is worn by the deacon and often seen worn by the Angel of Gabriel in representations of the Anunciation
A Sisterhood of Stitchers
p11. A panel of unidentified construction depicting Eleanor of Castile (1246-90), who accompanied her husband Edward I on a crusade. This design by W.F. D'Almaine of London and included in the Art-Journal Illustrated Catalogue of the Great Exhibition, 1851 typifies the Victorian interest in Medieval decoration and its romantic associations
p12. Cope hood of 1845-50 which typifies the theatrical use of strong clear colours by Pugin. The cope is the largest of the ecclesiastical vestments which renders the hood on its back an important focal point for decoration
p13. An example of a simple vestment of linen embroidered in white or single colours, here worked in red; such vestments were often used in the Church of England from the 1840s to the 1920s. The example shown on page 13 was worn by F. Westall of St. Cuthbert's Philbeach Gardens; and it shows the typical arrangement of Y-shaped orphreys
Arbiters of Taste
p.14. Plate 26 from Mary Barber's influential volume 'Some Drawings of Ancient Embroidery' (1880) and a detail from a serge superfrontal designed by William Butterfield, derived from her drawing. Made in 1889 by the East Grinstead convent's workroom for All Saints' Margaret Street, the superfrontal was used with the green frontal illustrated on page 56
p15, left. Detail from a silk velvet chalice veil where the embroidery was designed by Edmund Sedding in 1860-5 depicting pansies. Both Edmund and his brother John Dando (who wrote a book on gardens) led the trend towards naturalism in designs for the church
p15, right. The chasuble orphrey with goldwork outlines from the black high Mass set designed by Geldart in the late 1880s for St. Cuthbert's Philbeach Gardens. The boldness of this design shows the continues influence of Pugin's Glossary, while the broken surface created by the couching stitches reflects contemporary taste
p16. An early 20th Century photograph of the East end of St. Margaret's King's Lynn, showing an entire scheme, including the metalwork, designed by G.F. Bodley
p17. A selection of bannarets, or small banners, illustrated in Geldart's Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism (1899). After the Great War, these additional decorations were often replaced by military flags and colours in honour of those lost in battle
p18. A chasuble worked by the Sisters of Bethany, designed by Comper as part of the redesigning of the interior of Wimborne St. Giles, Dorset after a fire in 1908, which completely destroyed the church. The figure of St. Peter depicted on this chasuble shows the 'or nué' work for which they were famous. 'Or nué' is a form of goldwork embroidery using couching where different colored silk threads are stitched over the metallic base of gold
Societies and Schools
p18. A frontal from St. Michael's Brighton made in around 1860 by Miss Anderson, who copied the Annunciation scene from a 14th Century altar cloth in Lille Cathedral. Miss Anderson was a member of the St. Michael's congregation and embroidered many items for the church
p19. St. Clement's, Bournemouth, consecrated in 1873, was designed by J. D. Sedding and the arches in this frontal reflect the tracery of Sedding's chancel screen. Father Tinling, the first vicar, was Sedding's brother-in-law and trained as an architect. He designed smaller items for his church including, possibly, the frontal shown on page 19 of this book
Matters of Design
p20 . A diagram showing the dimensions of a cope, illustrated in Church Needlework (1909) by Hinda M. Hands. The cope is secured by a morse, often embroidered to complement the orphrey, but occasionally made wholly of metal
p21. A cope hood designed by D. Powell for St. Chad's Cathedral, Birmingham, between 1910 and 1925. It was illustrated by Roulin in Vestments and Vesture (1931)
p22. A banner of about 1880, depicting Christ in Glory. It was made for St. Barnabas, Pimlico and incorporates rare examples of 'needle-painting' in the face, hands and feet. This once commonly-available shortcut employed ready printed components overstitched by machine
p23. This plate shows the great processional banner of York Minster, which was designed by Sir Walter Tapper (from cartoons by the stained glass artist John Charles Bewsey) in about 1915 and embroidered by Watts. With embroidery on both sides, this large banner (8ft * 4.5 ft) is designed to be carried by two men. For the inscription inside it, see page 165
p24. A poem by William Luff called 'The Washed Embroidery' published in the Girl's Own Annual in 1883

p25. My Life is an Embroidery
Traditions and Taste
p25. A vignette from the Girl's Own correspondence of the same year
p27. A chromolithograph from Waring's Masterpieces of the International Exhibition 1862 (1863) shows a detail of a carpet from Madras with gold embroidery work. The Art Journal of the day had also praised Indian textile design. The Leek Embroidery Society took inspiration from such Indian work (the reader is directed to view the Leek Embroidery Society work on page 129)
p28. A black and white drawing of a fair linen cloth for a communion table, exhibited at London's Great Exhibition in 1851 and made by Gilbert French (his firm was in Bolton, UK). He came from a part of Scotland well-known for its high quality whitework (fair linen is always white)
Schools of Design
p29. Two black and white drawings - examples of Berlin woolwork designs exhibited by Andrew Hall of Manchester and illustrated in the Art Journal Illustated Catalogue to the Great Exhibition
Art Needlework
p30, left. Shows the black and white title page of the Young Ladies Journal from 1886, specifically relating to the section on Berlin woolwork. It shows a geometric design, typically covering the entire canvas ground. The colour supplement to the feature is also shown
p31, right. Shows a Berlin woolwork design reflecting the alternative, prevailing, tendency towards realism in mid-nineteenth century secular embroidery
p32. A black and white illustration showing one of two designs for wash stand splash-backs included in an 1883 Girl's Own feature on Art Needlework. The piece was designed and embroidered by Helen Marion Burnside
p33. A further piece by Helen Marion Burnside - shown here on p33 is a series of four embroideries each decorating part (i.e. a quarter) of a folding screen, described as Japanese in design. This formed part of the 'Holiday Needlework Projects' for the 1884 Girl's Own Sunlight Supplement. Japanese wares were first shown in Britain at London's 1862 International Exhibition and later inspired followers of the Aesthetic movement, something which Art Needlework was aligned with
p34. A frontal and superfrontal in colour, made in 1887 by the Leek Embroidery Society for All Saints' Church, Leek. It was designed by Richard Norman Shaw and incorporates plain and printed silk plushes applied with both Wardle's woven tussore silks and canvas embroidered with tussore silk flosses and Japanese gold thread
p35. An end-panel from a silk velvet Passiontide frontal designed in 1878 by John Dando Sedding for St. Augustine's, Kilburn. This colour plate shows an informal design and the use, almost entirely of silk floss in long-and-short stitch. The peacock-tailed bird shown on the embroidery symbolises immortality
Flying Colours
p36. Two black and white illustrations from The Art Journal, 1897, specifically the review of 'The Arts and Industries of Today'. Top illustration is an appliquéd linen hanging by the Haslemere Peasant Industries entitled 'The Purple Ship' with the sea creatures described as Dolphins; it is really depicting Jonah and the Whale (the Resurrection). The lower illustration is a frieze of pale yellow linen (the linen was woven by J. Harris and Sons at their Cockermouth Mills, Cumberland, where they also spun and dyed the flax threads), which was embroidered with orange, buff and peacock-blue threads
p37. Detail (in colour) showing a winged angel with horn holding up a banner proclaiming 'FREEDOM' and the initials WSPU (Women's Social and Political Union' from an appliquéd processional banner, 1909, designed by Sylvia Pankhurst.
Also shows a velvet Lenten cope hood of about 1900 from St. Clement's Bournemouth, which was worked by a Miss Harrison, a member of the congregation. Again this item is related to the WSPU in that darker shades of purple and green (with white) came to be associated with the movement
p38. Black and white banneret reading 'No Cross No Crown' from the 1883 Girl's Own Article, 'How to Make Banners and Flags'
p39. Black and white postcard showing a detail of a painted canvas mural designed by Sylvia Pankhurst reading 'Shall Doubtless Come Again With Rejoicing'; with three winged angels dominating the centre of the imagery; these were used on the walls of the Prince's skating rink, London, during the WSPU Exhibition of 1909. The design also incorporated the clarion calling angel, a gilded prison arrow (which had become a symbol of women's suffrage) and the female sower
The lower black and white illustration is again of a clarion-calling angel, which had been used as a motif for church furnishings in the Victorian era and here is one of a pair of prize-winning standing bronze-gilt candelabra by the French architect M. Ballu. These were exhibited at the International Exhibition in London, 1862
A Quiet Revolution
p40. An appliquéd panel or orphrey from an altar frontal worked in stem- and satin-stitched silk floss with paired and couched silk-twists. Similar designs exist from Bruce Talbert in Cox & Son's 1871 catalogue; the subtle tones and stylization of the potted lily, which represents the Annunciation, demanded the precision stitching of what must have been a commercial embroidery workshop
p.41. A pretty, and accomplished, one-half of an altar frontal designed and worked by Ann Macbeth in 1908. Ann Macbeth started a twelve-year-long role as head of embroidery at Glasgow School of Art, replacing the retiring Jessie Newbery

p42. The Designers
p43. The Title page, in black and white, from the Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism (1899) by the Reverend Ernest Geldart (1899)
p.44. A colour plate, vibrantly coloured, from Pugin's Glossary (1844) - 'An Altar with an overhanging dias, shewing the Side Curtains, the Frontal and the dossell or super Frontal'
p45.Augustus Welby Pugin 1812-1852
p45. Colour. A chasuble from St. Alban's Holborn, showing the use of a Pugin-designed woven orphrey braid
p45. Colour. Two mitres together with lappets, one mitre showing two alternative patterns, as illustrated in Pugin's Glossary (1844)
p47. George Edmund Street 1824-1881
p47. Shows a black & white illustration of a panel for an altar-cloth exhibited by Newton, Jones and Willis at the Great Exhibition of 1851 (they won prizes here for their embroideries designed by Street). Described by the 'Great Exhibition, London, 1851: "Art Journal" Illustrated Catalogue of the Industry of All Nations' as 'embroidered by hand, in gold and silk'
p48. Colour plate showing detail of the silk velvet altar frontal designed by George Street in circa 1865 for the chapel in St. Margaret's Convent, East Grinstead; it was made in the sisterhood's own workroom incorporating silk floss, gold and silver passing, silver and silk twist and concave gilt spangles
p49. Colour panel showing a circa 1870 frontal by Street for St. Mary Magdalene's Paddington, which was worked by the Community of St. Mary the Virgin, Wantage. Stylized pomegranate motifs arranged in a formality typical of Street
p49. William Curtis Brangwyn 1839-1907
p50. A prize-winning banner (black & white illustration) designed in 1866 by Brangwyn, made in his workshop in Bruges, and shown in Paris at the Universal Exhibition of 1867. It shows the influence of Street on the design in the chevron shapes used in the borders; however Brangwyn is different - he uses peacocks and attractively curving vines, which are something you see in the Art Needlework style (of which Brangwyn and contemporaries the Seddings are originators)
p51. An 1888-1890 burse made in the East Grinstead convent embroidery room; it's interesting for the 'etching' work that is typical of Brangwyn's Bruges workshop
p51. Edmund Sedding 1836-1868; and John Dando Sedding 1838-1891
p51. A burse designed by Edmund Sedding with bird and flower motifs, in approx. 1865 and made for St. Augustine's, Kilburn. A similar burse appears on p52.
p52 and p53. (full page colour plate of the St. Michael frontal) - two altar frontals designed by John Dando Sedding in 1868-1874
p54. Shows an end panel from the York Minster Festal frontal designed by John Sedding and worked in 1869 by the Society of St. Margaret, East Grinstead. Isabella Sedding ran the embroidery workroom there as Sister Isa; so the Sedding family connection is strong in this piece!
Includes many nature motifs - birds, butterflies, forest fruits and the keys of St. Peter, the patron saint of York Minster
Mary Barber, died c.1879; and William Butterfield, 1814-1900
p55. Two plates in colour extracted from Mary Barber's 'Some Drawings of Ancient Embroidery' (1880): one showing sprays and tendrils from c.1470; the second showing a cherubim, which is very similar to the one shown in the third colour plate on this page of a frontal designed by William Butterfield for All Saints' Church, Margaret Street in the 1840s
p56. A rendition from Mary Barber of a censing angel on the funeral pall of London's Fishmonger's Company, c.1512-1538 is here shown alongside (underneath) two frontals designed in 1889 that use the same motif. The frontals are: 1) A black frontal by Geldart for St. Augustine's, Kilburn; and a green one by Butterfield for the All Saints' Church Margaret Street, which was made by the East Grinstead School of Embroidery and exhibited at the 1880 Church Congress in Hull
George Frederick Bodley 1827-1907
p57. Two colour plates: a red velvet chasuble from St. Peter's Horbury with the 2nd plate showing detail from that. Important because the pictures show the refinement of medieval designs in the sensitive use of colouring and placement of powderings - here a pomegranate motif, which Bodley became well-known for
p58. Bodley's banner for St. Alban's Holborn, c.1875 is shown here in colour along with a detail from the reverse side. This is one of the earliest known works from Watts, which Bodley helped found
p59. The Our Lady banner from St. Alban's Holborn designed by Bodley in about 1880 together with the Blessed Sacrement banner shown opposite on p58. It shows how good Bodley was at using blank space within a design to contrast with texture in the rays and emphasize the delicate figure work
p61. Ernest Geldart 1848-1929
p60. A green cope of about 1895 including cloth of gold and coral bead decoration designed by Ernest Geldart for St. Augustine's, Kilburn. The cope hood depicts the Transfiguration. There is laid work on the piece which was specialty work and given the gold threat, suggests association with Bruges. Geldart was well known for depicting saints - two further colour plates here show St. Oswald in Royal raiment on a banner in St. Cuthbert's, Philbeach; and also a cartoon for St. Joseph, signed by Geldart and dating from the 1890s
p61. A black and white illustration of a red velvet banner designed by Geldart in about 1900 and embroidered by a Miss H. Harvey of London, praised by Alice Dryden in Church Embroidery 1911 for the good modelling of the faces. It was made for Chichester Cathedral and depicts St. Richard, the Bishop of Chichester (1245-53) and St. Wilfrid, the Bishop of Ripon
p62-63 - nearly two full pages showing 6 colour illustrations of embroidery, all from St. Cuthbert's Philbeach Gardens, London; and all designed by Geldart. From the Festal set are the frontal and details of the fronts of the chasuble and cope. The black cope hood belongs to the set from which the chasuble is shown on page 15. The design of these embroideries date from approx. 1888 to 1914, which is when Geldart designed the Church's reredos, which has angels matching the beautiful Festal frontal. All were made by the St. Cuthbert's Guild of St. Margaret. These embroideries epitomise the most luxurious phase of late Victorian and Edwardian church embroidery
p64. John Ninian Comper 1864-1960
p66. Colour plate (photo) showing part of the white High Mass set designed by Comper for St. Alban's Holborn, in 1894. This chasuble detail shows the distinctive couched surround typical of Comper designs made by the Sisters of Bethany. Page 96 shows the matching tunicle
Same page: a 1930s' white frontal designed by Comper for All Saints' East Meon, Hampshire employing a rose motif often used by Comper with even spacing of the pattern, typical of the interwar period
Same page: A detail showing the depiction of the Holy Spirit on the back of the chasuble, designed in the early 20th Century by Comper for St. Matthias, Earl's Court. Possibly worked by the Sisters of Bethany (now at St. Cuthbert's Philbeach Gardens)
p67. A banner, in colour, designed by Comper for St. Augustine's, Kilburn, and worked by the Sisters of Bethany in 1912. It incorporates many areas of applied silk damasks
Same page: In colour, this plate shows a detail from the St. Mary Magdalene, Paddington, white altar frontal, designed by Comper sometime around 1894-1895, when he designed the chapel of St. Sepulchre. Possibly worked by the Wantage sisters with rich work symbolising the Rose sprung from the Jesse tree (perfect for Christmas)
p68. Dom E.A. Roulin OSB
p68. Two black and white plates (photographs) showing (top plate) a cope at Ampleforth Abbey, c.1925, designed by Dom Roulin and described as being ornamented in gold, old-rose velvet and black; and in the bottom plate: a chasuble with orphreys of ashen-blue plush, a centre medallion and squares of dark red satin, and rock-crystal ornamentation, made by A.E. Grossé of Bruges, probably also to a design by Roulin

p69. The Firms
p69. Black and white plate showing a Wippell catalogue cover, 1895
p70. A chasuble from Our Most Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell, designed by Comper most probably during the 1920s. It shows how important the damask fabrics are in the overall design. Quite a few designers produced their own range of patterns specially dyed to their own colours. Starting in the 1890s, Comper's fabrics were dyed by Wardles. The damask shown in this colour plate is 'Cathedral' and it has a gorgeous green and black design with a gilt cross
p71. Colour plate of Canterbury Cathedral's banner, possibly a Kempe Studios design of the 1880s. It has a later ground fabric based on Italian Renaissance silk patterns. This design was called 'Wymondham' and was handwoven by Warner & Sons to curtain Westminster Abbey's annexe during the 1953 coronation. These and other coronation fabrics were sold on post coronation to churches and cathedrals across Britain
p72. John Hardman & Co., Birmingham (founded 1838)
p73. Three colour plates: A cope hood in colour from the black High Mass set at St. Alban's, Holborn uses a design of the 1850s by Pugin, executed in cardwork (silk floss embroidered over waxed card templates), which was typical of the Hardman workshop, run at that time by Mrs. Powell.
Also shown is a detail from the cope designed by Pugin in 1845-50 and reputed to have been embroidered by Mrs Scott-Murray for her family's private chapel at Danesfield. She is likely to carried out only the silk floss figure work. The Powell workroom at Hardman's is likely to have undertaken the background floss embroidery and assembly. Hood of the cope is shown on page 12.
The frontal for St. Peter's, Hascombe, Surrey is shown in colour. It was designed in the late 1880s by J. Alphege Pippet of Hardman's and was worked by the Misses Musgrave, daughters of the incumbent Vicar. The elder of the two Musgrave sisters, Florence, was described at her death in October 1931 as a embroiderer of rare talent
p74. The frontal for St. Peter's, Hascombe, Surrey is shown in black and white
p74. Newton, Jones & Willis, Birmingham
A black and white illustration (might be a photo) of a pattern for woollen materials available from Newton, Jones & Willis in 1854, which could be woven in gold on a rich ruby-coloured ground, or a background of green
p75. An engraving showing part of a cope designed by Street for an Anglican archbishop and shown in the Great Exhibition of 1851 by Newtons. Illustrated in the 'Great Exhibition, London, 1851: "Art Journal" Illustrated Catalogue of the Industry of All Nations', it was described as 'worked by hand in gold and silk'
p76. A superfrontal (colour plate) from St. Augustine's Kilburn showing the type of fringe sold by Newtons and promoted by Street and Dolby in the 1860s. Its designer is unknown. Although Street was involved in furnishing this church, the elements are more characteristic of Brangwyn (one of several men who trained in Street's office at this time
p76. Cox & Son, Southampton Street, Strand, London AND Buckley & Co., Wells Street, London
p76. A Cox & Son's design, dated 1 January 1871
p77. The St. Clement's (Boscombe), Bournemouth, Golden Cope made by Buckley & Co. in the 1870s and exhibited at the Church Congresses of 1880 and 1882. The semi-circular placement of motifs draws its influence from medieval times
p78. A black and white illustration of the use of temporary decorations including 'everlastings', which are artificial flowers and greenery. They are included in Geldart's Manual of Church Decoration and Symbolism and are indebted to Edward Young Cox's 'The Art of Garnishing Churches' (editions 1868-1884)
p78. Morris & Company, London 1861-1940; and May Morris 1862-1938
p79. A black and white original photograph of the altar in Rochester and Southward Deaconess House showing a superfrontal designed by Philip Webb in 1898-9 and worked by May Morris. Interestingly, the picture also shows the 'apple' design wallpaper by William Morris, 1877. Church congresses helped firms promote their wares - in 1893, Morris & Company showed off their frontal and superfrontal for All Saints' Wilden in Worcestershire, which had been designed by Morris and embroidered by Mrs Burne-Jones (Georgiana) and her sisters Mrs Baldwin (the donor) and Miss Macdonald
p80. Colour plate of the Agnus Dei (a.k.a 'Lamb and Flag') frontal in Llandaff Cathedral, Cardiff. This was designed by Philip Webb in 1868 and worked by Janey Morris's sister, Elizabeth Burden
On the same page in black and white is a photograph of one of the two Chairs of State used in the coronation service in 1911, commissioned from Morris & Co. The fabric is 'Sackville' by Warner and Sons. The embroidery itself was carried out by the Society of St. Margaret, East Grinstead
p81. Kempe Studios, London 1866-1907 and as C.E. Kempe & Co. Ltd 1907-1934
p81. Colour plate showing a detail of the Clewer Sisters' Crucifixion banner, which has on it painted work associated with the Kempe studios (with non-original cord outline and ground fabric added to it). The design is similar to a banner made in 1889 by the Clewer sisters for St. Agnes Kennington (no longer exists)
The right hand plate shows the Kempe Studio's characteristic mix of velvet and damask; here is a tunicle of about 1868 which forms part of the red High Mass set designed for St. Michael and All Angels, Brighton
p83. Watts & Co., London founded 1874 (30 Baker Street, Portman Square)
p83. Black and white image of a Watts' entry in the Church of England Yearbook, 1885, advertising their embroidery and textile fabrics: damask silks, stamped and plain velvets, woven stuffs for hangings, surplices, metal work and altar vessels; and most relevant - embroidery for ladies' own working
p84. A colour plate of the altar frontal from St. Agnes' Sefton Park, Liverpool. It was designed circa 1893-1902 by John William Lisle of the Kempe Studios. It has a silk satin ground and was worked by the Clewer Sisters in floss silks and couched and laid gold thread
p85. A cope and frontal embroidered by Watts under Davenport for the coronation of Edward VII in 1901 making bold use of the embossed velvet, 'Rose and Crown', which is stridently outlined in gold threat creating an opulence suggestive of Italian Renaissance brocaded velvets
p86. A detail (in colour) of the Our Lady banner (see page 59) which emphasizes the subtle effects created by the skilled use of couching and long-and-short stitches
p87. A colour plate (photograph) showing the complete High Mass set designed by Davenport for Downside Abbey, c.1900. High Mass sets typically included a dalmatic, chasuble, cope, frontal, stoles, burses, veils and humeral veils (worn over the shoulders by the sub-deacon)
p88. Watts is particularly well-known for Japanese goldwork. The colour plate shows padded goldwork on an orphrey of about 1890; whilst the black and white image is that of a Festal frontal designed by Hare, c.1925, which uses textured goldwork contrasted by the silk damask ground. The edging is couched cord, which emphasises the contrast
Same page: a colour picture of Hare's design for Llandaff Cathedral, 1909, which incorporates roundels depicting St. Peter and St. Paul
p89. shows a glorious photo of St. George's Chapel, Windsor focused on the green High altar frontal, which was designed and embroidered by Watts in 1912. St. George and St. Edward the Confessor flank our Lady and are reputed to bear the features of the Duke of Clarence, Edward VII and Lily Langtry
p90. An altar frontal, dominated by blue and gold colours, which was presented to Westminster Abbey by HM Queen Elizabeth II when she was crowned in 1953. It was designed by Stephen Dykes-Bower and the eight embroidered orphreys are the sacramental symbols of the bread and the wine, the sheaves of corn and the vine and grape. Further away from these are the rose of England, the thistle of Scotland and the daffodil of Wales; also the broom (planta genesta) of the Plantagenets, followed by tulips and carnations (effectively continuing the great tradition of floral English embroidery)
p91. Detail of the rich goldwork in colour on the red silk velvet altar pall designed for the American Memorial Chapel, St. Paul's Cathedral by Stephen Dykes-Bower. It was embroidered by Watts with each of the rays exploiting a different raised and couched texture, demonstrating Dykes-Bower's desire to promote the specialist skills that had made English embroidery pre-eminent in the years prior to WW2
Two examples of designs by one of Watt's designers, Keith Murray, are shown in colour from the late 1940s and 1950s. There is a striking simplicity of the symbolism on both the cope worn at the 1953 coronation, and the Phoenix Cope hood for St. Paul's Cathedral from the same period. Murray's designs show a move away from the religious imagery in Church vestments towards a broadher history of ceremonial and heraldic garments
p92. Louis Grossé founded Bruges, 1783; Ipswich & London c.1880-1980
Two details of the Grossé Passiontide frontal made for All Saints' Margaret Street, London in the 1890s - both plates are in colour. The central panel uses rose, blue and purple silk taffeta as a foil for the raised and padded silverwork; the detail of a purple silk velvet side panel shows that the metal threads have been couched in both red and gold silk floss
p93. shows two black and white illustrations of two Louis Grossé chasubles of the Gothic Revival illustrated by Roulin in 1931. They show the alternative 'cross' and 'Y' orphreys characteristic of chasubles

p94. Convents and their Embroidery Schools
p94. detail (colour) of the back of Father Stanton's cope, designed by Comper in 1894 and worked by the Sisters of Bethany
p95. two colour examples of work from Miss Spencer for St. Mary the Virgin, East Grinstead. The white cope hood from 1916 (entirely laid work) and the Assumption banner from 1918 are examples shown here. Miss Spencer was a vicar's daughter, educated at one of the schools run by the Society of St. Margaret, which included the teaching of embroidery
p96. A tunicle displaying a Comper design made for St. Alban's Holborn in 1892. This design is still held by the Sisters of Bethany. It is part of a white High Mass set, for which the Chasuble (shown p.66) was finished 2 years later
p97. A chasuble from St. Mary Magdalene, Paddington worked by the Guild of embroidery in concert with the Wantage sisters in 1895not long after the Wantage sisters opened their school of embroidery. It was designed by Comper with the motifs and gold and silver couched threads unusually running under the applied gold damask orphreys
p97. A banner of St. Michael's Lyndhurst, Hampshire
p98. Sisterhood of the Holy Cross, Park Village West, London founded 1845, embroidery from 1847, and Sisterhood of Mercy founded 1848, embroidery from 1854; amalgamated 1856 to form:
Society of the Most Holy Trinity (SHT), Devonport. This section contains no plates

p99. Society of All Saints Sisters of the Poor (ASSP) Margaret Street, London (now Oxford) founded 1851, embroidery from c.1852 to the present
p100. Community of All Hallows (CAH), Ditchingham founded 1854, needlework from 1854, embroidery from c.1864-1969. School of Embroidery founded c.1890
p100. Colour plate of a banner (c.1895) depicting an interpretation of the motto of the Community of All Hallows: 'Semper Orantes, Semper Laborantes', which means 'Always Praying, Always Working'
. The white lillies represent purity and the palm frond represents humility
p101. The All Hallows white cope hood (in colour) showing six East Anglian saints with Edmund the King and Martyr shown here. The cope did not start off embroidered - it was already in use in 1898 and the embroidery added soon after. It is though the designs were from Mother Adele who had died in 1896. Behind the figure is cross-hatched laid work, something that has been used on a number of All Hallows' embroideries.
A 2nd colour plate shows a detail of the eagle (the emblem of St. John) from the All Hallows red cope. This was shown at the 1895 Church Congress, Norwich, not long after their embroidery school was first mentioned in the records of the community
p102. A black and white picture of a banner of the 1895 Church Congress, Norwich, designed and worked at All Hallows. Hall's English Church Needlework, A Handbook for Workers and Designers (1901) includes this.
p103. Community of St John the Baptist (CSJB), Clewer founded 1851, embroidery from the early 1860s to the present
p104. Three colour plates of designs by the Kempe Studios worked by the Clewer Sisters for use in their own chapel. From the golden cope worked from 1882-1885 are shown the hood, and a detail of an orphrey. The black cope, from which the hood is shown was made in 1883. The whole background shows skillfully worked laid gold threads and all show the outlined leaf motif associated with embroideries from this community; appliqué was used on the golden cope embroideries (again common to this community)
p105. Community of St. Peter's, Horbury (CSPH), Yorkshire founded 1858, embroidery from 1863-1993
p105. Shows a colour plate of the hood of the Canon Sharp cope made by the Community of St Peter's between 1885, when Sharp became a canon, and 1890, when he was photographed wearing it. The orphreys incorporate words from John 21, 15-19
p106. Emily Ayckbown and Church Extension Association (CEA) founded 1863, embroidery from 1863 and Community of the Sisters of the Church (CSC) Kilburn, London founded as the Sisters of the Church in 1870 in the parish of St. Augustine embroidery workroom from 1880-1975
p108. In 1894, the Sisters of the Church worked the white cope shown, designed by Geldart, for St. Augustine's Kilburn. It's embellished with spangles, while the silk damask is enriched with outline stitching in Japanese gold thread
p109. Full page colour plate of the left panel from the 1889 Festal Frontal from St. George's Chapel, Windsor which was designed by the architect J. L. Pearson (1817-1897). It was embroidered by the Wantage Sisters at J.L. Pearson's suggestion
p110. The St. Hubert banner worked by the Wantage sisters and illustrated in Hall's English Church Needlework, A Handbook for Workers and Designers (1901). Although the illustration is black and white, Hall's volume says that the main colour was pale blue with red architecture
p111. Sisters of Charity, St. Raphael's Home, Bristol founded 1868, embroidery from 1868
p112. Colour plate of a burse designed by John Dando Sedding in about 1880. It was made by the East Grinstead sisterhood for use in their own chapel
p112. The Society of St Margaret (SSM), East Grinstead founded 1855, embroidery from 1866-c.1972 and St. Katherine's School of Embroidery, Queen Square, London founded 1870
p113. A colour picture of a fair linen (the long, white linen cloth laid over the linen cloth), which was one of the key items produced by the convent workrooms. Often white on white, it can also employ red, white or blue stitches. The example shown here contains text from Psalm 42 , interestingly one of J.D. Sedding's favourite verses
p114. Black and white photograph of Sister Isa (Isabella Sedding) in the East Grinstead embroidery workroom, which was supervised from 1871 until her death in 1906
p115. Black and white illustration of the St. Mary Magdalene frontal worked for Edinburgh Cathedral by St. Katherine's School of Embroidery, Queen Square, London and first used on Christmas day, 1889. It is shown illustrated in the Society of St. Margaret's magazine in December of the same year
p116. A two page colour spread of a chasuble, cope hood and a red cope orphrey showing skilled goldwork produced by the East Grinstead sisters. The chasuble shows variations in the placing of stitches to create different textures. The cope hood, which shows the Resurrection, employs laid gold wire to create the impression of a woven diaper pattern. Geldart designed both cope hood and chasuble in 1880. The red cope orprhey has unknown design origins, but resembles other made in the 1870s by Bruce Talbert
119. Society of the Sisters of Bethany (SSB) founded 1866, embroidery from 1873-1972 and SSB School of Needlework, 6 Lloyd Street, London founded c.1876
p120. Colour photo of a mitre made by the Sisters of Bethany in about 1907 for Our Most Holy Redeemer, Clerkenwell. The silk floss embroidery is gradually shaded from the top to the rim of the mitre. The design is by Comper and the shape an unusual choice being based on post-Reformation models
The larger plate shows a white frontal originally made for one of their own chapels by the Sisters of Bethany to a Comper design. It was given to Winchester Cathedral in the 1970s
p121. Shows (in colour) two drawings from Dolby's Church Needlework (1867). They demonstrate cross-hatched laid work or 'line and cross diaper'. Dolby's volume was often consulted by convent embroiderers
p122. A purple stamped velvet chausble and a detail from the back of a red chasuble (on p.123). Both were designed by Comper and both were worked by the Sister's of Bethany; as a result they both show Comper's characteristic use of an embroidered band (rather than a woven braid) on the outer edge of the vestment. The red chasuble (1903 design) also shows in the cloak of St. Dorothea the or nué work for which Bethany was known. The purple chasuble is more restrained work, commissioned by St Matthias Earls Court and subsequently given to St. Cuthbert's Philbeach Gardens
p124. Missionary Community of St. Denys (CSD), Warminster founded 1879
p125. Black and white picture of fourteen designs from Dolby's Church Needlework (1867)

p126. Guilds and Secular Schools
p126. A detail from the chasuble made as part of a set by the St. Paul's Knightsbridge Embroidery Guild, designed by Bodley in about 1900. The embroiderers met at Watts and carried out their work under his direction, using Watts' materials
p127. Detail of the late 1880s frontal worked by the Musgrave sisters for St. Peters', Hascombe in Surrey, where their father was the incumbent (colour plate)
p128. A black and white plate (photo) of a dalmatic designed by Katherine MacCormack and made by the Dun Emer Guild. It was part of a set of vestments made in 1923 for St. Patrick's Church in San Francisco. It incorporates Irish poplin which was woven by Atkinsons of Dublin
p129. Shows two items designed by Selwyn Image - an embroidered screen made by the Royal School of Art Needlework and illustrated in the 1898 edition of The Studio; and also the altar frontal shown in design form from 1899 in Embroidery or the Craft of the Needle, written by W. G. Paul Townsend, who was then art director of the Royal School
p131. Two fine ecclesiastical examples of embroideries which number among the many undocumented pieces. On page 130 is the early 20th Century Annunciation frontal from Salisbury Cathedral (which uses red in place of green following the 'Use of Sarum'); whilst on page 131 is the late 19th Century red frontal in the Jesus Chapel at Canterbury Cathedral. Both colour plates show only approximately one third of the entire embroidery
p133. Has two colour plates showing the contribution made by female relatives of clergyment to their relatives churches: 1) A veil in detail worked by Katharine Kirkpatrick to a design by Edmund Sedding for her brother's church, St. Augustine's, Kilburn. 2) The burse and veil of c.1875, which were probably embroidered by Rose Sedding, sister of the Reverend J.D. Tinling, first vicar of St. Clement's, Bournemouth (and wife of J.D. Sedding, who probably designed this)
p134. Agnes Blencowe and The Ladies' Ecclesiastical Embroidery Society (LEES) founded 1854, embroidery from 1854-1863 becoming The Society for the Advancement of Ecclesiastical Embroidery and Continuing Until the 1960s
p136. Detail of an altar frontal in colour from St. Michael and All Angels, Brighton, designed by William Burges in 1862 and worked by Miss Anderson, of the Society for the Advancement of Ecclesiastical Embroidery. In 1857, the young Bodley designed the church of St. Michael and All Angels, which contains the first important commissions to Morris
p137. Shows a litany fall (colour), which is one of several embroideries made by the Leek Embroidery Society for All Saints', Leek
p139. Black and white plate of a red velvet frontal embroidered in the mid-1880s by the Leek Embroidery Society for Croxden Church, Staffordshire. The silk floss and Japanese gold threads have been worked in a pattern strongly influenced by Indian embroidered and printed textiles
p140. Full colour page showing the frontal and superfrontal designed by George Wardle for All Saints', Leek, worked jointly by the LES and the sisters of the Society of St. Margarets, East Grinstead. It has extensive goldwork and incorporates nine saints derived from a screen in an East Anglian church and panels worked with 15th Century style pomegranates alternating with all-over patterns based on Indian embroideries
p141. Royal School of Needlework (RSN), London founded 1872 as the School of Art Needlework, and Decorative Needlework Society founded c.1879
p141. The detail of an embroidery shows the relationship between Art Needlework and church embroidery; the effect being largely based on the choice of shades and the direction of the long-and-short stitches. Coloured spangles are used to represent the seeds of pomegranates (not a usual effect). It was made for St. Peter ad Vincula, Pennel, in mid-Wales, a 17th Century church, on completion of restoration (for the fourth time) from 1861 - 1873. The local Anwyl family commissioned the Royal School of Art Needlework to make two frontals in Situ
p144. Two examples of work from The Decorative Needlework Society, under the patronage of Princess Christian. The Decorative Needlework Society was established by ladies who had held leading positions in the Royal School recent to 1883. One of the embroideries is a Passiontide frontal designed by J. D. Sedding in 1888 for Holy Trinity Sloane Street; the other is one end of a frontal worked with a representation of 'I am the True Vine', a version of which Mary Gemmell executed in raised goldwork and gold silk floss for St. Paul's Knightsbride, c.1898

p145. Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Association 1902-32 and Church Embroidery Society of St. Nicholas 1913-32
p145. The circular colour plate on p145 shows detail of the Liverpool Cathedral High altar Festal burse designed by C.G. Hare and made during WW1 by the Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Association
p146. Shows a design for two reredos curtains, 1903, by Bodley supplied to the Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Association (one of the first two designs supplied). These were to be duplicated one above the other to create ten 6-foot panels of embroidery, then mounted onto the pair of silk velvet reredos curtains. Among those who worked these motifs was Rosalie Stolterfoht, the instigator of the Association and its Honorary Secretary
p147. The design for the Lady Chapel white frontal, 1905 (colour)
p148. A detail of the Lady Chapel green frontal designed by Bodley and worked by two of the Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Associations most prolific and skilful embroiderers Margaret and Maria Comber. It was embroidered between 1906 and 1909 with couched, raised and laid work in mostly Japanese gold thread. Miss Jackson and Miss Thwaites of Watts & Co (publishers of this book) worked the mounting and finishing along with the two angels at either end of the Advent frontal, which was the last of the Lady Chapel designs by Bodley
p149. Shows one of the angels referred to in p148. Maria Comber embroidered the figures and here sister Margaret the faces
p150. The Lady Chapel red frontal donated by six ladies from Mossley Hill; Mrs Bruce Ismay was one of the donor and one of the embroiderers (she stitched one of the stars). Most of the embroidery was carried out by Miss P.B. Langton, with assistance from Miss Mitchell, Miss Servaes, Mrs Corbett-Lowe and the Misses Comber (Margaret & Maria)
p151. Detail from the Lady Chapel Festal frontal - worked in silk floss (colour plate). Miss L. Davies worked the Japanese gold thread, silk twist the lily buds and some of the roses. Miss E. Mather worked the leaves; Miss D. Rimmer the leaves and lilies; Miss Paine the lilies and Mrs Phoebe Powell the raised goldwork vases and some roses. There is subtle addition of colour in the silk floss flowers.
p152. One of four angel's heads from a burse designed by Hare (Cecil Greenwood Hare) and worked on by the association (in colour)
p153. Shows the Liverpool Cathedral High altar Festal frontal, designed by Hare and finished by the association in 1913. The full piece contains 35 figures; there are 11 shown here. It demonstrates the considerable skill of Margaret Comber and Josephine Chambres, who together did most of the work with the assistance of 14 other association members (including Mrs Powell and daughter Audrey Powell). Hare stated it was the best amateur work he had ever seen
p154. Full page colour photo of a stole designed by A.W.N. Pugin, c.1840-50, symbolizing St. Margaret of Antioch. It is believed this was embroidered in the Powell workshop and incorporates applied white silk satin and red silk velvet on blue silk damask, with silk twist, gold passing, pul, plaiting and both concave and flat spangles, in satin stitch, couching and raised and laid work

Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Museum (The Elizabeth Hoare Embroidery Gallery)
Making Church Embroideries
p155. A sample from 1920-35 still showing some of the tracing paper over which the embroiderer worked the silk floss and Japanese gold directly in long-and-short and satin stitches, couching, laid work and a variety of raised work
p156. An unfinished amateur work of about 1920 with red ink outlines on an unbleached linen background (colour)
p157. Shows the only surviving element of the Sir Stuart Coats chasuble (this was subsequently given to Archbishop Verdier of Paris; and presumed lost during World War 2). This sample was made in 1921 in the Sisters of Bethany workroom to a design by Sir Ninian Comper. It included a chasuble, stole, maniple, burse and veil; and later a mitre. It is recorded in letters and drawings held in the Royal Institute of British Architects, London and in correspondence with the Bethany Sisters. The embroider is thought to have been Winnie Peppiatt, known to have been skilled in or nué work (you can see this in the Saint's garment, which is shaded solely by the placement of the silk floss couching thread over the laid Japanese gold. The background is worked in patterned couching and the face in split stitch
p158. Detail of an 1840-1860 Italian of French Catholic Bishop's mitre incorporating glass gems and a variety of gold threads including plate (flat strips), passing (smooth and wire-like, around a silk core), crimped passing, purl (like a coiled spring), square purl and flat spangles (or sequins) on cloth of silver (colour plate)
The second colour photo on p158. shows a Bishop's mitre made by Watts & Co. for Bishop Mandell Creighton (1897-1901). It was the first mitre worn by a Bishop of London since the Reformation. Creighton was well known for wearing a mitre as the Bishop of Peterborough and was at the start of what has since become a tradition in the Church of England
p159. Top Left plate: Detail of an English maniple end (1870-1900) with silver passing, silver wire purl, Japanese gold and silk floss on silk damask; with laid work covering the padded (or raised) work semi-sphere
Lower left plate: A stark and striking (in terms of contrast) colour plate shows a card-worked embroidery, silver passing, purl and twists on a black background. Waxed card templates were worked over with metal threads, each turn hidden by pulling it to the back of the cloth with the couching thread. The effect is neat and smooth - the example here being a c.1840 miniature French sample
Top right plate shows an unfinished sample made about 100 years ago by Thomas Pratt & Co. of London. It demonstrates clearly how the corded work was created. The gold-coloured silk floss is stitched over two twine cords as a time, shifting down by one cord in each vertical row. The embroiderer could create different textures by skipping over the cords in a different pattern, or by laying the chords out in different ways. There are two diagrams on this page at this point which are based on medieval examples and which show how this could be done (they come from Dolby's 1868 book "Church Vestments: Their Origin Use and Ornament")
p160. Shows a cope hood with a difference - recycling! A 1790 French embroidery depicting Raphael's 'Transfiguration' has been remounted (c.1830-1860) into a surround of gold pearl purl cord on silk velvet and silk twist card work depicting ilex or holly. In about 1960, it was relined and given a new Japanese gold and silk twist
p.160 Colour
p161. Is a Festal chasuble made for Father Benson, founder in 1866 of the Society of St. John the Evangelist, known as the Cowley Fathers after their location near Oxford. The design comes from Bodley and Garner during the 1880s and incorporates a wide range of coloured silk floss and twist, Japanese gold, applied silk velvet edged with braid, on a white silk damask ground
p162. Demonstrates how shading was achieved, here seen in a stole, which was made between 1890 and 1920 for use during Advent. The embroiderers achieved the shading by using split stitch, later adding details in French knots, raised and laid Japanese gold work and couching. The silk twist fringe has Japanese gold wrappings and the design of the silk damask derives from a fourteenth-century Luchesse damask
The second colour plate on p162. shows detail of one of five orphreys where subtle variations in the colouring of the roses (pink) is achieved. It is worked in silk floss long-and-short stitch; also using Japanese gold couching and laid work on applied silk velvet. A church guild did the work between 1900 and 1930 with the whole being assembled by Watts & Co.
p.163. Along the margin of p163. is a Passiontide altar frontal from circa 1935. It's notable for its lack of colour, which is typical of the refined and austere tastes of the interwar period
There is also a colour illustration taken from Pugin's Glossary (1844) which shows one example from 'English Priests, from Monumental Effigies'. It illustrates both the way in which Pugin braids were often used and the colour scheme selected for the Liverpool Cathedral cloaks in 1926. The image was derived from a brass effigy of a priest in Horsham Church, Sussex and is one of few such effigies to show clearly the stole, which is often hidden by the chasuble
p163. Symbolism
p164. Shows a sample (a rounded of silk twill painted in watercolour and edged with gold passing cord) made by a professional workshop in 1945 - the scene is the eagle of St. John, the lion of St. Mark, the ox of St. Luke and the man of St. Matthew, all with wings as a symbol of Divine mission. It was worked in silk floss, Japanese gold applied silk satin and cloth of gold (colour)
p165. A colour plate (photo) of a cotton damask veil c.1950 showing the Agnus Dei (Lamb of God) that includes long-and-short and split stitch, laid work and couching. The Agnus Dei was often rendered with a coat of French knots. The lamb signifies innocence, sacrifice, patience and humility
The 2nd plate on the page shows an orphrey of c.1870 with a lily in its most stylised form, looking very similar to a fleur-de-lys. The design has been worked with stem, satin and padded satin stitches, French knots and couching in silk floss, passing, twisted silk and Japanese gold cords. Originators possibly B.J. Talbert or S.J. Nicholl for Cox & Son
p165. About the Collection

Appendix
p166. Colour photo of a simple panel, probably intended as a pulpit fall representing a good example of embroidery of the 1850s often associated with the Ladies' Ecclesiastical Embroidery Society, founded in 1854 by Agnes Blencowe and Mary Ann Street, the sister of George Edmund Street
Handling Embroideries - small section of advice on how to handle these often delicate items
Storing Embroideries - how to best store embroideries and what to avoid doing
p167. Highlights the delicate shading possible in embroideries, here a stole; achieved using fine silk floss long-and-short stitch with additional detail provided by Japanese gold and silver laid work, French knots and glass domes. The colour of the damask (an aesthetic green) was fashionable around 1865-1890
p168. shows a colour plate of a small section of embroidery from the study collection of the Liverpool Cathedral Embroidery Collection. This section has characteristic damage from rubbing and folding, which over time serves to loosen or break the couching threads and wear away the ground fabric

Endnotes; Abbreviations
p175. A black and white outline drawing of a goldwork sampler illustrated in Church Needlework (1909). The author Hinda M. Hands used the sampler to demonstrate the impact of curved and diagonal stitches

Acknowledgements
p177. A black & white photograph of an inscription found inside the Great Processional Banner, York Minster (see page 23)


Embroidery - tapestries

Antique Embroidery

Religious Vestments

Church Decoration

Church Design

Religious Artefacts

Religious Symbolism

Art Needlework

William Morris

English Cathedrals

English Churches

Church Tapestries

Embroidery Societies

Religious Art

Liverpool Cathedral

The Chasuble

The Bishop's Mitre

The Altar Cloth

 



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