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Ancient History: Early Civlizations
The Palaeolithic, Epipalaeolithic, Neolithic, Bronze & Iron Ages/The Old World of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China, The Near East

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[In Alphabetical Order. Date signifies earliest edition. Later editions covered by each listing]
1997. The Ancient Near East c. 3000-330 BC, Volume II by Amélie Kuhrt
1999. Early Civilizations of the Old World by Charles Keith Maisels
1935. The Story of Prehistoric & Roman Britain Told in Pictures by C. W. Airne, M.A. (Cantab.)



Kuhrt, Amélie; Millar, Fergus (ed.) 'The Ancient Near East c. 3000-300 BC, Volume II', published in 1997 in Great Britain by Routledge in paperback, 782pp, ISBN 0415167647. Published within the series: Routledge History of the Ancient World. Condition: Near Fine. Price: £34.00, not including post and packing, which is Amazon's standard price (currently £2.75 for UK buyers, more for overseas customers)
1997, Routledge, pbk
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  • The Ancient Near East c. 3000-300 BC, Volume II [top]
    Written by Amélie Kuhrt; Edited by Fergus Millar
    Published in 1995 in Great Britain by Routledge in hardback
    Published in 1997 in Great Britain by Routledge in paperback, 782pp, ISBN 0415167647 as part of the Routledge History of the Ancient World
    Cover illustration: Boundary stone (kudurru) of King Marduk-apla-iddina II (721-710 BC) recording a gift of land by the king (on the left) to an official. Cover design is by Leigh Hurlock
    Volume 1 (Hardback): 0415013534
    Volume 1 (Paperback): 0415167639
    Volume 2 (Hardback): 0415128722

About this book/synopsis: The ancient Near East embraces a vast geographical area, from the borders of Iran and Afghanistan in the east to the Levant and Anatolia, and form the Black Sea in the North to Egypt in the south. The author examines the area's history from the earliest written documents to the conquest of Alexander the Great, c. 3000-330BC. It provides a lucid, up-to-date narrative which incorporates the latest archaeological and textual discoveries and deals with the complex problems of interpretation and methodology.

About the author: At the time of publication (1997), the author was Reader in Ancient History at University College London. She was co-organiser of the Achaemenid History Workshops (1983-90) and has published many books on the ancient Near East, one of which was as co-editor of Images of Women in Antiquity (Routledge, 1993)

Contents:
List of figures; list of maps; list of tables; abbreviations
Part III: Political transformation and the great empires (c.1200-330)

8. The LEVANT c. 1200-c. 720
Crisis and political change between c.1200 and 900
8a. The 'sea-peoples'
8b. The Aramaeans
-The Assyrian evidence
-The Babylonian evidence
-Evidence from the Levant
Conclusions
8c. The survival of Late Bronze Age Centres
8c(i) The Phoenicians
-Sources and problems
-The development of the Phoenician cities
8c(ii) The Neo-Hittite states
-Definition and location
-Sources for political and social conditions
Conclusion
8d. Israel: the formation of a small Levantine state c.1200-900
8d(i) Introduction
-The Old Testament
-The implications of biblical criticism for Israel's early history
8d(ii). The problem of the Israelite settlement
-Defining the problem
-Conclusion
8d(iii). The emergence of the Israelite state
-General overview
-Chronology and sources
-Israel and the judges
-Saul, the first king of Israel
8d(iv). The triumph of Judah
-Introduction and Sources
David
Solomon
8d(v) The separate states of Israel and Judah
8e. The states of the Levant and the Assyrian empire in the ninth and eighth centuries
-The broad picture
-The case of Israel and Judah: Sources; Historical Outline
Conclusion; Notes

9. The NEO-ASSYRIAN EMPIRE (934-610)
9a. The Assyrian annals and other historiographical sources
9b. From territorial state to imperial power (934-745)
-The development of Assyrian strategy (934-884)
-Ashurnasirpal II and Shalmaneser III (883-824)
-Problems in Assyria: 823-745
9c. Imperial expansion and consolidation (744-c.630)
-Tiglath-pileser III and Shalmaneser V
Sargon II
Sennacherib, Esarhaddon and Ashurbanipal
9d. The structure of the Assyrian empire
-The Sources
-Kingship, war and imperial ideology
--The lord of life and death
--The defender of the Assyrian order
--The Assyrian king and the divinities of subject peoples
--Loyalty, terror, mercy and vengeance
--The fruits of war
-The Royal succession, the royal family and the court
--The selection and education of the crown-prince
--The king and his learned advisers
--The royal funeral
--Queens and royal women
--Royal children
--The royal entourage
-The organisation of the empire
--The provinces
--Manpower, conscription and taxation
--Communications, commerce and prosperity
--Cities and kings
9e. The fall of Assyria
-Problems of evidence
-Reconstructing Assyria's demise
Notes

10. ANATOLIA c.900-c.550
10a. The kingdom of Urartu
-Location, exploration, origins and sources
-The physical environment
-Historical outline
-The Urartian state
10b. Phrygia and Lydia
Phrygia; Lydia
Notes

11. BABYLONIA c. 900-539
11a Introduction
-The sources
-The population of Babylonia
11b. c. 900-705
Co-operation and conflict: Babylonia and Assyria c. 900-747
The Assyrian conquest of Babylonia: 747-705
11c. Babylonia under Assyrian rule: 705-627
-Sennacherib and Babylon
-Babylon restored
-Civil war and economic recovery
11d. The Neo-Babylonia dynasty (626-539)
-Nabopolassar and the 'War of Liberation'
-The reign of Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562)
-Nebuchadnezzar II's successors
-Nabonidus and Cyrus of Persia
11e. The Neo-Babylonian empire
11f. The cities of Babylonia in the Late Babylonian period
Notes

12. EGYPT c. 1000-525
12a. The Third Intermediate Period: dynasties XXI-XXV (1069-664)
-Chronology and sources
-Historical outline
-The Napatan kingdom
-The Assyrian invasions of Egypt (674-664)
12b. The Saite period (dynasty XXVI: 664-525)
-General observations
-The foundation of dynasty XXVI
-Egypt united
-Frontiers and defence
-Amasis
Notes

13. The ACHAEMENID EMPIRE (c. 550-330)
13a. The sources
13b. Persians and Medes
13c. The formation of the empire
-Cyrus the Great
-The conquest of Egypt
-The crisis of empire
13d. Achaemenid history and its problems
-The reign of Darius I
-The western front, 486-431
-Darius II and Artaxerxes II
-Artaxerxes III and the reconquest of Egypt
-The fall of the Persian empire
13e. The structure of the Achaemenid empire
-The ideology of kingship
-Royal rituals
-The king, the court and the Persian nobility
-Satrapies and subjects
--Provinces and central control
--Roads
--Land, labour and manpower
--Persian government, local autonomy and local traditions
Notes; bibliography; index

Figures
Karatepe
Plan of Carchemish
Plan of Megiddo IVB-VA
King Jehu of Israel doing obeisance before Shalmaneser II of Assyria
North-west Palace, Kalhu (Nimrud), relief behind throne-base
Assyrian soldiers with heads of enemy dead (North-west Palace, Kalhu (Nimrud))
Assyrian roayl seal
Relief from Kef Kalesi, Lake Van
King Warpalawas of Tyana praying to a god of fertility; near Ivriz
Set of pottery, Knife-blade and puppy skeleton, remains of a 'ritual dinner'; from Sardis
Kudurru of Marduk-apla-iddina II
Chaldaeans hiding in marshes from Assyrian soldiers (Palace of Sennacherib, Nineveh)
Plan of Babylon
mushhussu-dragon of Marduk; glazed brick relief from Processional Street, Babylon
Reconstruction of Babylon and Ishtar gate
The Cyrus Cylinder
Behistun relief
Plan of Tepe Nush-i Jan
Royal hero stabbing lion, from a doorway at Persepolis

Maps
Israel - physical features; Israel - sites; The Assyrian Empire; Urartu; Central and Western Turkey; Lower Egypt; Nubia

Tables
The 'sea-peoples'
The 'twelve tribes' of Israel
The kings of Israel and Judah
Kings of the Neo-Assyrian period
Chronology of Urartian kings
Anatolia c. 740 - c. 540: chronology
Babylonian chronology: c. 900-605
Chronology of Neo-Babylonian rulers
Egypt: chronology of the Third Intermediate Period
The Saite (dynasty XXVI) kings
Kings of Persia

Other books on the Ancient Near East:

History of the Levant:

History of Anatolia:

Books on the Achaemenid:

Maisels, Charles Keith. 'Early Civilizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, The Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China', published in 1999 by Routledge in hardback with dustjacket, 479pp, ISBN 0415109752. Sorry, sold out, but click image to access prebuilt search for this title on Amazon
1999, Routledge, hbk
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  • Early Civlizations of the Old World: The Formative Histories of Egypt, the Levant, Mesopotamia, India and China [top]
    First published in 1999 in Great Britain by Routledge in hardback with dustjacket, 479pp, ISBN 0415109752 .
    Jacket design by Terry Foley; jacket illustration shows the head of a shaman, Yangshao (inland), Neolithic, of China.

    There are approximately 87 illustrations in total and 21 tables. Just inside the cover at the front of the work is an excellent chart of Evolutionary Landmarks in Years Before Present.
    At the rear of the book is a map of the Levant, Mesopotamia and Western Iran with some prehistoric, protohistoric and historical sites marked
    .

About the book/synopsis: The writeup on the back of the volume asks whether a complex society has to be structured as a state and does it have to have social classes? In reaching for the answer to this question, this book traces the development of civilization in the Levant, Egypt, Mesopotamia, China and India from pre-Neolithic times to the emergence of nation states. It looks at the ecological and economic backdrops to the growth of civilization in these areas; geographical factors, cross-cultural intersection and the rise of urbanism - from these it explains how particular forms of social structure and cultural interaction developed.

It has a broad scope and takes a comparative approach which makes it an accessible volume and therefore an ideal introduction to the birth of civlization from the Mediterranean area to the Far East.

It also challenges the normal assumption that there is a development from band to tribe to chiefdom to state that must take place for civilization to arrive. It in fact shows us that what we would call civilization can flourish in large complex societies that do not have social classes or a state-like structure. The Indus civilization is held up as a prime example of this, containing different and new evolutionary mechanisms.

Chapters:
1. How Does The Past Illuminate the Present?
-The emergence of archaeology as a scientific discipline
-the lands of the Bible (=Near East)
-Social archaeology
-Childe's checklist
-The present illuminated: paths of the past, spirals to the future

2. Sema-Tawy: The Land of The Papyrus and Lotus
-the place
-the time
-Late Palaeolithic
-Epipalaeolithic to Neolithic
-State formation process
-Childe's checklist

3. The Levant and Mesopotamia
-the place
-the time
-Syria and the Levant
-To the heartland of cities in Sumer, via Hassuna, Samarra and Halaf village farming cultures
-The social order
-Conclusion
-Childe's checklist

4. The Indus/'Harrapan'/Sarasvati Civilization
-the place
-the time
-Social evolution: Neolithic to Chalcolithic at Mehrgarh
-Later agricultural subsistence
-Urban society
-The misrepresentation of the Greater Indus oecumene
-Class stratification
-The fall
-Palaeoethnology: kinship to caste
-Conclusion
-Childe's checklist

5. The Central Kingdom, Zhong-Guo
-the place
-the time
-The Neolithic clusters
-Final Neolithic to Chalcolithic
-The Chalcolithic: Longshan
-The Chalcolithic: Hongshan
-Clanship and the territorial state
-Bronze Age urbanism
-States: The three dynasties
-The late Shang capital at Anyang
-The earlier Shang capital at Zhengzhou
-Western Zhou
-Childe's checklist

6. Conclusion: The Emergence of Social Complexity
-How useful do Childe's criteria turn out to be?
-Childe's other revolution
-Political economies
-Politics and the state
-Social evolution

Appendices
Appendix A: The genealogical principle
Appendix B: Occupation, kinship and care
Appendix C: The Sumerian King List as an historical source

Bibliography & Index

2001, Routledge, pbk

1999, Routledge, hbk

Neolithic societies :

Palaeolithic Societies:


circa 1935, Sankey Hudson & Co., pbk

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  • The Story of Prehistoric & Roman Britain Told In Pictures [top]
    By C. W. Airne, M. A. (Cantab.)
    Over 550 Illustrations Depicting the History of Britain in Its Earliest Days
    First published in 1935(?) in Great Britain in paperback by Sankey, Hudson & Co., card covers, staple binding, 64pp
    Note - many of the illustrations are truly excellent and will interest archaeologists, historians, adults and children alike. There are some ideas and drawings which are out of date, but many are of actual artifacts in the British Museum and hold their relevance, interest and accuracy even today despite the age of this publication

Chapters:
1. Palaeolithic Britain
2. Neolithic Britain
3. Celtic Britain
4. Roman Britain
Glossary

Illustrations:
1. Palaeolithic Britain:

P3. Pre-glacial Fauna found in Britain and indicative of a tropical climate: Mastodon (extinct), Lion, Lynx, Sabre-Toothed Tiger (extinct), Antelope, Dingo/Wild Dog, Wolf, Striped Hyena, Jackal, Hippopotamus, Elephant
P4. Eoliths from the North Downs, Kent: borers, scrapers, picture of Eolithic man
P5. Early Paleolithic or River Valley Men: primitive earliest races were nomadic hunters confined to the river valleys: roamers, hunting, spearing fish, flint chipping, wooden spear, flint hand axes, flint discs and flint cores
P6. Glacial Age Fauna of Western Europe: Irish Elk (extinct), Marmot, Reindeer, Polar Bear, Alpine Hares, Ibex, Bison/Aurochs, Mammoth, Musk Ox and Woolly Rhinoceros (extinct). Reindeer, Aurochs and Mammoth (extinct) were the principal mainstay of the cave races inhabiting Britain during the Early Ice Age
P7. Cromagnard Cave-Dwellers and Hunters - two half page drawings
P8. Cromagnard Palaeoliths: End Scrapers, Side Scrapers, Chopping Tools, Diagram of a Cromagnard Flaking Flint by Applying Pressure, Borers, Hand Axes, Lance Head, Hammer Stone, Knife, Bone Awl, Needle and Harpoon Head, River Drift Man
P9. Cromagnard Weapons and Implements: Bone lance with split base, shaft-straightening (how it was done), Horn Shaft-Straighteners, Using the Spear-Thrower, Spear-Throwers, Barbed Harpoon-Heads, Borer, Pointed Knife, Piece of Bone with Splinters Removed, Flint Graver, Harpoon, Sandstone Burnisher, Flint Borer, Bone Needles, Craftsman
P10. Cave Period Art: Palette, Simple Lines and Smears, Paint Mortar, Cave Artists, Well-Defined Animal Forms and Painted Pebbles, Skilful Composition and Execution, Engravings and Carvings
2. Neolithic Britain
P12. Neolithic Implements: Polished flint celt, stone celt, stone celt mounted in antler and wood, heavy axe, methods of hafting, pierced axe-hammers, method of boring, flint arrow and lance heads, grinding stone, pierced flint pick, flint mining, section of flint mine. Extensive flint mining was notably undertaken at Grime's Graves, Norfolk (now a visitor's attraction in its own right)
P13. Neolithic Occupations - 9 illustrations, e.g. Shepherd, Ploughing, Reaping, Threshing
P14. Neolithic Dwellings - Pile Dwellings, Hill Stronghold, Hut Circle - exterior and interior
P15. Weaving - flax plant; primitive loom with weights, distaff and spindle; pottery spoon; clay loom-weights; neolithic vase; coarse cloth and net made from flax; basket making
P16. Long Barrows and Dolmens: a stone age dolmen; West Kennet long barrow; ground plan of the chambered barrow, Uley, Gloucestershire; entranceway to chambers at Uley, Gloucestershire; Barrow at Stoney Littleton, Somerset - section and plan; Transverse section of gallery and chambers at Stoney Littleton; Kit's Coty, nr Maidstone; Cromlech at Plas Newydd, Anglesea
P17. Stonehenge: from the East; from the West; drawing of how it is thought the stones were erected - hauled up mound, tilted upright into excavation, levering upright into position, lintels placed in position and method of connecting the Stonehenge lintels; Stonehenge present day
P18. The Phoenicians - soldier, trader, galley, glassware, merchant galley, Britons bartering with the Phoenicians
3. Neolithic Britain
P20. Bronze Age Smiths: bronze casting; the smith; open stone moulds; bronze closed mould; primitive bellows; method of hollow casting; furnace and bellows; smith's tools
P21. Bronze Celts and Spearheads: Flat Celt; Flanges; Stop Ridge; Loop; Wings; Palstaves; Halbert, Daggers and Rapier; Swords; Arrangement of rivets on rapier & sword; development of bronze spear: tang pinned into haft, looped and socked spears with strong mid-rib; types of blade
P22. Celtic Implements and Utensils: razors, reaping hook, socketed hammer, bronze pin and tweezers, hammer, vase and urn, chisels and gouge, pick, flesh hook, knives, fish hooks, bronze axe-head, armlet
P23. Early Celtic Dwellings - hut circle, plan of workshop at Ty Mawr, Holyhead; beehive huts; Reconstruction of Glastonbury Lake Village (Crannog type)
P24. Early Celtic Design and Ornament: gold bracelets, bronze bracelets, bronze coil, gold clasp and hoop, bronze anklets, gold disks, pins, jet buttons, beads, jet necklaces
P25. Celtic Barrows and Burial Urns - section of barrow - Bamborough (Northumberland), Ford (Northumberland); Bowl Barrow; Bell Barrow; Disk Barrow; Cinerary Urns; Sepulchral Pottery
P26. Trade and Transport: Dug-out canoes; Carrying the Coracle (made of Wicker); Coracle afloat; Bartering; Iron Currency Bars; Ancient British Coins
P27. Celtic Weapons and Armour: iron swords; decorated spearhead; bronze sword hilts; dagger sheath; bronze shield boss; disc with enamel studs; bronze helmet; embossed frieze of bucket; embossed bands; decoration of bronze collars
P28. Celtic Craftsmen: pole lathe; hand-saw; turned wooden bowl; pottery from Welwyn, Herts; and pottery from Glastonbury; cup from the Thames; details of the decorations from the Glastonbury pottery
P29. Celtic utensils: bronze mounted bucket (from Aylesford, Kent); cordoned bucket (Weybridge, Surrey); bronze mounted tankard (from Aylesford, Kent); Bronze jugs from Tewkesbury and Aylesford; Silver cup from Welwyn, Herts; amphora from Welwyn, Herts and Pail with lid
P30. Celtic ornament: shield decoration; enamelled bit; enamelled bronze (Celtic, Perthshire); bronze sword hilt; enamelled cheek piece or bridle (Polden Hill); enamelled breast plate mount; harness ornament; bronze hinged collar (Dorset); bronze bracelet (Cowlam, Yorks); bronze brooch (Kent); Silver Gilt Brooch (Northumberland); Bronze Brooch (Oxon); Bronze Brooch (Blandford, Dorset); Cast Bronze Pin (Hagbourne Hill, Berks); Pin with Coral (Thames); Bronze Pin from Anglesey; glass beads
P31. Typical British Celts: Chief, Chieftainess; Bard, Druid, etc. The Celtic Peasant in fighting dress bears an uncanny resemblance to Baldric from Blackadder, but cleaner...
P32. Julius Caesar (102-44 B.C.) - the man himself; bust (from British Museum); coins; Roman soldier; the death of Caesar
P33. The Roman Invasion of Britain, 55 B.C.: The coming of the Romans to Britain; and The landing of the Romans in 55 B.C.
Roman Britain. A.D. 43-410
P35. Map of Roman Britain illustrating arterial roads, tribal areas of power; major forts, walls and towns
P36. The Roman Conquest of Britain: coin of Claudius; coin of Claudius representing the conquest over Britain; coin showing the earliest figure of Britannia on a Roman coin; illustration of Claudius; illustration of Julius Agricola; captive wearing the torque; Gallic weapons; illustration showing the battle of Boudicca; Caractacus in Rome
P37. The Picts: The Picts attack Hadrian's Wall (drawing by J.A. Kendrick); drawings of typical picts; a Pict tower and interior and a bronze statuette of Nero from Barking Hall, Suffolk
P38. The Northern Wall: Bronze head of Hadrian from the Thames; Hadrian's Wall; cross-section of wall and vallum; legionary stones from the Scottish Wall; Hadrian's Wall section; diagram of the facings of stones from Hadrian's Wall; small scale diagram of Hadrian's Wall & Ditch; coins of Hadrian; coin of Antoninus Pius; coin of Severus; illustration of Antoninus Pius; Stamped Pig of Lead 'IMP HADRIANI AVC' and illustration of Septimius Severus
P39. The Amphitheatre: diagram of the amphitheatre at Caerleon; the ruins of the Colosseum at Rome; a chariot race and gladiators. Other examples have been found at Colchester and Dorchester
P40. Drawing of Roman Legionary and Centurion, showing for the legionary: galea (helmet), tunic, balteus (belt), lorica (cuirass), gladius (sword), pilum (lance); and for the centurion: crista (crest), torquis, phalerae, pugio (dagger), braecae (breeches), caliga (shoe), scutum (shield)
P41. Drawing of Roman Cavalry and Infantry: Romans and Celts in Battle; and Roman Infantry
P42. Roman Artillery: Slinger, spearman, sling-bolt, rampart of fortified camp, agger and vallum, phalarica, caesar's trestle bridge, testudo, catapult, ballista, battering ram
P43. A Legionary Fortress: fortified city gate, colonnade, Roman Fort, Barracks, Watch-Tower
P44. Detailed aerial view of a Roman villa; this one in particular is of the villa excavated at Chedworth, Gloucester
P45. Illustrations of Roman Industries and Occupations - e.g. carpenter, shoemaker
P46. A Roman House - Atrium (hallway), Triclinium (dining room) and bath
P47. Roman Furniture: hypocaust or heating chamber, bronze lamps, brooch, padlock, iron scissors, inkpots, reed pen, ivory stilus, bronze bench, bronze couch, folding stool, bronze table, bronze stand, pottery
P48. Roman marriage: Roman temple at Nimes; drawing of marriage ceremony; marriage sacrifice; marriage procession
P49. Roman Shops and Funerals: Roman shop: bronze steelyard, bronze balance, bronze footrule, Roman Cutler's Shop; Roman Funeral - burial cist, sarcophagus, earthenware cinerary urn, glass cinerary urn
P50. Typical Roman Britons
P51. A Roman British Town: drawing of aerial view of Calleva or Silchester, Hampshire
P52. Dwelling-House Construction: method of roof construction, stone and Roman tiles, water pipe, mason's marks on stones from Hadrian's Wall, methods of brick and stone facing, tessellated pavements, herring bone pavement, carpenters' and masons' tool, set squares
P53. Building Construction: drawing of a wall section showing plinth, concrete and tile layers; and method of laying tiles for concrete filling; drawing of vaulting method and technique using concrete and vaulting with dressed stone
P54. Roman roads: aerial and oblique view of Roman road in Lancashire; Roman arch; section of Roman roadway; and building a gateway
P55. Roman transport: wagons, horses, chariots, litters, etc
P56. Roman galleys
P57. aerial view of Roman London (324 acres), surrounded by its defensive wall fortifications and a small section of the Southern bank of the Thames
P58. Miscellaneous antiquities - groma, strigils and oil-flask, inkpot, old woman on mule toy, dice, dice-box, women playing at knucklebones, cithara, flute and trumpet, pottery money box, milestone, helmet with mask, pottery flue-tile, terracotta groups - one showing a reading and writing lesson
P59. Roman pottery: Belgic black ware, firing of pottery kiln, Samian pottery, castor ware, New Forest pottery
P60. Early Christianity: Chi-Rho, the sacred Christian monogram; reconstruction drawing of the Christian Church at Silchester; bust of Constantine I; stamps on pewter from the Thames; pottery bowl of fourth century with inscription relating to Constantine the Great; gold finger ring with sacred monogram
P61. Bronze and glass ware: Roman racing chariot, statuette, bells, hanging lamp, bucket, bronze with deities of the week, dodecahedron, spoon, celtic god, triangular plate
P62. Roman Buildings: wall of Caerwent, Pharos (Dover), Roman bath at Bath, bastion at Pevensey, Roman bridge
P63. The Roman market -drawing of the Forum (the recognised centre of civil life)
Glossary

 

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